NOTE: Sections blacked out in the original are noted by X's, with number of lines where applicable.

REFERENCE: Teletype to Bureau dated 1-14-43.

Report of Special Agent XXXXX dated 1-9-43, at Salt Lake City, Utah.

DETAILS: This is a joint report of the writer and Special Agent XXXXX.

Confidential Informant XXXXX advised that there was a general lack of supervision and command at the Poston Relocation Center. Informant stated that there was no cooperation between these various administration divisions. Informant further stated that XXXXX Poston WRA XXXXX was unintelligent and incapable. Not only did he not cooperate with the wardens, but he at several times came to the barracks where Informant lived and obtained information. he would then request Informant not to give anyone this information and especially not to the Chief of Police as the Chief of Police at the Poston Relocation Center could not be trusted. Informant then advised that the police would also come to Informant and ask that any information that they might receive from the Informant not be given to anyone else. Informant states that in general the police have no intelligence and in addition have no experience or tact. The truck which is the only means of transportation that they have, is noisy and people know when the shift changes and where the police are at all times. In general, Informant states, the police are cooperative and although they are former residents of Terminal Island, they are not involved in any plot.

Confidential Informant XXXXX advised that a party by the name of XXXXX is trying to start more trouble at Poston. Informant stated that XXXXX was formerly very cooperative with the Government Agencies. Shortly after the evacuation he XXXXX of a group from El Centro, California, which collected money to purchase a farm project in Colorado. A committee was sent to Colorado to check this farming project and it was decided that the group would purchase the land. Later, however, officials of the War Relocation Authority found out about the project and sent an investigator to Ingersoll, Colorado and decided it would be better if the WRA purchased the land, whereupon the WRA did purchase the land and the project in so far as the Japanese were concerned fell through.

Informant XXXXX then made contradiction of former statement and when questioned was not sure whether XXXXX was actually XXXXX of the group. In any event, Informant advised that the money which had been collected was all returned, but at the present time either XXXXX were evidently trying to save their own necks and had reverted to the other side and were causing considerable dissatisfaction by demanding that the money be returned, even though it had. These people are trying to lay the blame for conditions in the camp to a relative of Informant XXXXX who is carried as Informant XXXXX in instant report and the blame is also being placed upon a friend of XXXXX who is carried as XXXXX in instant report.

Confidential Informant XXXXX advised that certain Fascist advocates have been pushing the case relating to ??NOBU YASUJI too strongly. He states that a great deal of money is being raised and that although he does not know, he does not think that the money is being raised entirely with YASUJI's knowledge and consent. Ostensibly the purpose for which money is raised is to bring XXXXX case before the Supreme Court, however, XXXXX seems to think that the money is being raised probably for a bad purpose, perhaps for the purpose of propagandizing the various relocation centers. Informant states at the present time a great deal of propaganda relating to the XXXXX case is being sent to the Tule Lake and Minidoka Relocation Centers. Informant states that as a matter of fact he believes that those people are trying to raise money in the name of YASUJI without his knowledge and without saying exactly for what reason the funds are being solicited. Informant further states that the idea occurs to him that the purpose may be to raise money to start suits to force the army to show cause why the Japanese people should not return to the West Coast.

Confidential Informant XXXXX advised that he had been approached by a Government Agency in regard to a proposal which would be similar to that proposed and broadcast by Dr. SCHULTER, President of Hunter College in New York City and associate editor of the magazine "Commonwealth". It is understood that Dr. SCHULTER as President of the organization known as the "Loyal Germans" signed a statement asking the German people to revolt and that this statement was broadcast to the people of Germany. This Government Agency was putting pressure on a member of XXXXX organization to draw up a petition and have it signed by numerous Japanese and have this petition directed towards General TOJO asking for the restoration of the Japanese Emperor and for the overthrow of the present military regime.

Confidential Informant XXXXX further advised that TOKUTARO SLOCUM, a veteran of the United States forces in World War I, had gone to Washington some time after January 1, 1943 for the purpose of contacting Senators and Congressmen and advising them as to what was actually happening in the various relocation centers. XXXXX advised that SLOCUM was of the opinion that both the WRA and the Army had failed to publish the true facts concerning the trouble at Manzanar and SLOCUM felt it was time the public and Congressional officials were acquainted with the real reasons and facts as to the uprising. XXXXX was unable to advise who was financing SLOCUM, however, he was was certain that SLOCUM was financed by someone other than his personal resources because SLOCUM had no resources which would support such activity. SLOCUM is presently receiving mail in care of General Delivery, Washington, D. C. Associated Press dispatches have been recently released from Washington where Congressman GEARHART of California and Senator WALLGREN of Washington have urged Congressional investigation of the troubles and disturbances in the various relocation camps. XXXXX believes that the reason for these investigations by the various Congressmen is because of the activities of SLOCUM in the national capitol.

XXXXX advised there was no question but what SLOCUM was a patriotic and loyal American and that his motive was to improve conditions in the various relocation camps and also bring protection to the pro-American Japanese. However, XXXXX is somewhat apprehensive concerning the manner and approach that SLOCUM would have in attempting to improve the conditions of the pro-American Japanese and felt that although his motive and aim might be proper, yet his approach might be improper and thus in the long run do more harm than good.

Confidential Informant XXXXX advised that the following individuals had made arrangements for Japanese naval officers to obtain information:
XXXXX, an Issei and formerly the XXXXX, Terminal Island, California.
XXXXX, proprietor of the XXXXX, Terminal Island, California.
XXXXX, proprietor of the XXXXX, Terminal Island, California.
XXXXX, Manager XXXXX, Terminal Island, California.
XXXXX advised that XXXXX, a resident of Block 30, Poston, Arizona, had told him there were two short wave radio receiving sets at Poston presently in use and in addition that there was also a moving picture projector which had been secretly smuggled into the camp. XXXXX further advised that a film depicting the Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor had been smuggled into the Poston Relocation Center and had been exhibited to the inmates through the use of the above mentioned movie projector. XXXXX had no other information in his possession, but suggested that great discretion be used in contacting XXXXX because of the fact he would undoubtedly be beaten and suffer severe bodily punishment if he were in any way openly contacted. XXXXX felt that XXXXX would cooperate with the Field Division provided he was interviewed in the appropriate place and proper protection was afforded him in concealing his identity at the time he was interviewed.

XXXXX further advised that it was his opinion that some of the mail which he had mailed to Poston since his release had been intercepted. He stated it had come to his attention that the Kibei group in Manzanar Relocation Center was unofficially censoring all outgoing mail and he felt it was possible that someone was censoring mail in the Poston Relocation Center. Specifically, XXXXX stated that the reason he thought mail was intercepted was because of the fact that he had written a letter to a particular individual which had never reached its destination. XXXXX advised the Phoenix Field Division concerning the details of the probable interception of this letter in a letter dated December 26, 1942.

In a letter from Manzanar, California to Confidential Informant XXXXX dated December 9, 1942, XXXXX was advised by XXXXX that as of December 8, 1942 things had quieted down considerably at Manzanar, although normalcy had not as yet been regained. XXXXX advised XXXXX that free speech, freedom of thought and freedom of action had been done away with, both by the military rule and terrorists. The letter of XXXXX further stated that the military had stepped in to assume control, "but worse than that, pro-Japanese Kibei elements are conducting their cowardly acts of terrorism. Those of us who do not fall in with their ways of thought and action are billed for a visit from about fifteen to twenty of their gang. At several homes where the person they wanted was not at home, the old parents were beaten unmercifully. Current rumors have it that about thirty young women are on the list to be paid a visit. During a recent altercation one man was shot and eventually died. Black arm bands have been passed out and all those not wearing them are to be beaten up. I do not intend to wear one for I do not know the young man nor do I feel sorry for him. A general strike has been called and all those not connected with the mess division are not to go to work. School children may not attend school."

"All these things prove one factor, that there are many people who belong in camps such as this. As far as those who believe in American ideals we should be released immediately or placed somewhere where we can exercise our principles of free speech, free thought, et cetera. Is there some way we can bring this about? This I think is not the problem just at Manzanar, but throughout all the Centers. Sincerely," Signed by XXXXX.

The following letter was received by XXXXX from XXXXX who was formerly at Manzanar Relocation Center. This letter was written from National Monument Headquarters, Death Valley, California:

"December 17, 1942

We have been here over a week already. We came here on the 10th of December. There are some 60 odd Japanese in this camp. We got chased out of Manzanar and we are not going to return there even if there are no other places to go.

XXXXX I'm certainly glad that you were not in Manzanar when H____ broke loose. That was one H____ of a place. They put us on the death list and tried to come after us, Fred XXXXX and myself, among others.

First of all, they -- the pro-axis elements -- attacked Fred in his apartment on Saturday evening, about nine o'clock. He was writing a letter in his bed when they clubbed him. He didn't have a chance to fight back. But he did recognize one of the fellows -- XXXXX. There were six in the gang that attacked XXXXX, all wearing p-coats and black masks.

XXXXX and his Internal Police took Uyeno into custody. They took him out of Manzanar to the Independence jail about two o'clock in the morning -- Sunday morning.

When XXXXX went to XXXXX house, he found blood-stained gloves that XXXXX allegedly used to hit XXXXX. The club which XXXXX was left in Fred's house.

Incidentally XXXXX and his brothers were not at home when the gang attacked Fred. They were visiting friends.

Uyeno's friends who are many number, mostly from the mess division, held a mass meeting at kitchen 22 at one o'clock Sunday afternoon. XXXXX -- remember him? -- XXXXX (billiard ball) and many others spoke. They demanded that XXXXX should be brought back to the center for trial and not be taken out of camp as he had been. The public was aroused and they believed the speakers to be sincere, I thought. Anyway, the public applauded them. A committee of six was chosen to make demands with the project director.

Instead of letting the committee negotiate Uyeno's return to the center jail, the mob followed the negotiating committee to the administration center. By the time the mob reached the post office it had grown much larger in size and it had become unruly, muttering threats at the 'dogs' -- so called informers. When Police Chief Gilkie saw the crowd advancing, he knew that he could not control them so he called the military police for protection.

The M.P.'s arrived in no time from the military barracks, first in groups of fifteen or so, until the entire barracks were empty of a single soldier. The entire M.P. strength is about 100 men. Many were on sentry duty, so I presume there were about 75 soldiers who answered Gilkie's call.

When the military police arrived the mob jeered at them, made funny remarks and dared them to fire on them. Somehow the M.P.'s held their fire. I admitted the courage of our soldiers who obeyed their superiors. The order was not to fire.

Meanwhile, the negotiating committee contacted Mr. Merritt, our new project director. Among the committee men, I recognized XXX-1 line-XXX. They were successful in getting Uyeno back to the center jail and they agreed to maintain law and order in the center.

Six o'clock in the same evening the mess hall division workers held another meeting at Kitchen 22, in spite of the fact that XXXXX and his gang had promised no more meetings.

The gang who called the meeting to order according to XXXXX was the same that called the earlier meeting. Which means that XXXXX was there directing. Anyway, the speakers asked the public to get rid of the informers. Kill them. The meeting adjourned with the mob having two definite aims: release from jail, (2) Kill XXXXX and other pro-Americans in the center. The mob was divided into two groups, one going up to the hospital to get XXXXX and the other down to the police station to seek Uyeno's release by force.

When the group of hoodlums went to the hospital they found that XXXXX was not there. So they started to get Slocum. When they went to Sloke's they were again disappointed. He wasn't home. So they started toward XXXXX house. When they got there, they were again disappointed. XXXXX wasn't there either. So they all started toward the police station.

As the noise of the approaching mobs became louder the sentry near the main entrance fired a number of shots in the air, warning the headquarters that the mobs had started on the war path. The MP's came in a hurry. However, by the time the military reached the police station the mob had already begun tearing some parts of the police station. But not much damage had been done. The military drove the people back a little. But the mob was stubborn. The MP didn't have the men to stem the pushing crowd so they hurled tear gas. Here again they were met with resistance. This time by the wind. It blew the tear gas away. One Japanese got into Fire Chief Hon's car and drove it toward the police station where there was a machine gun nest. Just as the car got started toward the soldiers the M.P.'s fired at the driver. He was jumping out of the car when the bullet hit him. I am told that this Japanese died.

Other Japanese in the mob threw rocks at the military police, insulted them by calling them all kinds of names, some even shouted to tear down the American flag and pull up the Japanese flag. XXXXX who was behind the bars also shouted to the mob to pull down the flag.

Martial law was declared shortly before the shooting but the people did not know it.

I presume the shooting took place about 7:30 to 8:00 P.M. Sunday evening. About nine o'clock all the mess bells began ringing calling the people to mess hall meetings. We rushed to block 12 kitchen and there we learned of the Japanese having been shot at by the military police for throwing rocks at them.

The casualty list I know for certain is two dead and eight wounded. Maybe I could be corrected. Real facts are hard to get. We are so D____ far from civilization.

XXXXX was at the scenes, he tells me. He was in the crowd at the mess hall 22 when he heard my name called out. He tells me now that he shrunk when the crowd yelled to get you too. Well, it seems that he was fairly close to the speakers. They even had loudspeakers, I am told.

The military police picked us up about four o'clock Monday afternoon. I was hiding, afraid the mob would be looking for me. I was sure relieved when the military came to my house with a large army truck. We were take to the Manzanar Military barracks and we stayed there for four days. XXXXX were picked up a little after I was. I was sure glad to see them.

The soldiers treated us fine. We ate with them. I was disappointed to find that the soldiers were not eating any better food than we Japanese in the centers. And to think that the Japanese in the camp were complaining! Well, they don't know when they are well off.

Signed: XXXXX"
In a letter to the Salt Lake City Field Division dated December 28, 1942 Confidential Informant XXXXX advised that he had received a letter from a friend in Manzanar Relocation Center dated December 17, 1942, which is as follows:
"Dear _____

As I was writing to XXXXX I thought you might be just as interested in the incident which happened here last week and is still going on. .......... Our school is in an awful mess just now but I hope the kids will learn the value of it all later.

I'm doing some typing for my neighbor just now during our vacation and it's all about the riot etc. Instead of writing my own impressions I tho't it might help to know someone else's too. I'll tell you some of the things he omitted. I never saw such a group where the feeling of hate between the Issei and Nisei existed so strongly as it does here. It's really interesting to note it all and yet so depressing. It hasn't been fun for anyone this past week and it's getting on the point where someone is going to burst. Our block is really punk as far as reasoning goes and we're constantly being told what to do and what not to do. It's a daily affair at the mess-hall and now we don't know anymore than we did then. Unofficial announcements are always being given and its gotten to a point where we don't know what to believe. Bulletins (official) say one thing and the speakers say another.

Martial Law was declared today and all the parents either have the wrong definition of it or are scared of something. We went to breakfast as usual this morning and our Block Leader comes running in making the announcement that there will be no work or school. After breakfast we read the bulletin on the mess-hall wall and the English was terrible and since it was printed by someone we knew it was not official. (All Ad. bulletins are typed and signed.) Quite a few of us work in the Ed. office so we all went to work together and on the way were stopped by two men who asked where we thought we were going. We ignored them and continued on our way and at the office Mr. High, Hessy, my boss, Dr. Woods, etc., were all there waiting for the staff. They excused us for the morning after listening to our story. However, all the teachers were at their respective posts waiting for the kids to come but you could see just a few here and there. I went to my classes that aft. anyway and had some interesting talks with my different teachers. It was really maddening to note how many students esp. seniors, had not gone to school. However, most of the students here are those who don't esp. care whether there is school or not. It makes it hard for those who really try to help the teachers and themselves. As it is now school will probably extend a little longer again. The closing date was supposed to be March 5th but don't know now. This is the second week of no school already and next week will be the third. Vacation for Xmas was supposed to be from the 24th to the 1st. I'm sorry there is no school too, because it'd help so much to keep the kids from thinking too much of what they don't know. Most of them believe everything they hear so really it's bad.

After going to work on Mon. and Tues. we were warned or rather threatened to stay on our own blocks. They really have it in for XXXXX since she does voice her opinion which are really sensible but this Kibei that talked to her only told a lot of people and now they stare at her every time something happens. She's on the blacklist too and the [sic] her mother is quite worried XXXXX is determined to get in her two cents worth. XXXXX too, they both go to most of the meetings in the Social Welfare so get all the dope. They made an announcement today that two Nisei went down to Merritt and told him things that were not good for the whole camp. They said they knew who they were and that they lived on our block. For a moment I tho't they meant XXXXX because we do go down to the post-office everyday. They jumped to conclusions once so we tho't they did again. Well, it's believed that they do suspect XXXXX again. Poor XXXXX. They certainly hate us S.P.'s because we on this block have different points of views. But it isn't going to do them any good to threaten us and to tell us what to do and what not to do, because it makes us want to do it more.

This black ribbon stuff was terrific. We don't even know the boy and tho we feel sorry for him and all we felt that they sorta brought it on themselves to bully the sentries and dare them to shoot etc. Well, they insisted we wear them and so to please them and because it is unnecessary to get into more trouble we wore them quite willingly. We must keep quiet and not do anything that will not be for the good of the camp etc., et... and for those so that they may not have died in vain...... gads, sounds like a great novel or something. They didn't know what they were dying for... are they kidding? Anyway the whole thing was full of baloney.

There is still work and school but we can't get near the offices so can't go to work. This life of staying at home doing nothing is boring. Play volleyball, shoot with the basketball, type, listen to music now and then but it gets monotonous. By the way, while you people are having snow we are having the California Sunshine with us. Doesn't feel like winter at all. (now watch it get cloudy tomorrow.) But really it's been nice and sunny all week now but a cold breeze too. After the sun goes down and early in the morning it's freezing... no lie! Hasn't been snowing in the mts. lately but we are expecting it any day now.

Mail is going out alright but we have to go down to the post office ourselves and the first couple of days in fact all last week we couldn't get off our block without being suspected of wrong doing. Certain ones were warned not to send out letters (XXXXX for a few) but we are now anyway. They told selected people because a lot of the people didn't even know it was going out. They couldn't miss all those houses esp. when our neighbors were missed...... I'm doing the typing for _____ because his parents won't allow him to do it in his home just now. It's explained right there. All this typing gives me good practice and gives me something to do too.

We were certainly sore at this bulletin tho. They had the nerve to say 'We the 10,00 [sic] people' here and there. Wish they would speak for themselves.

This election was really something. Our block leader tried to tell us whom to vote for and so forth and XXXXX just about exploded at him. He's a Kibei and scared stiff about something. Everything around here is Issei, Kibei and Phooey to the Nisei! In the first place the block leader didn't know how to go about an election, so they had to explain it to him. Boy! did he get mad!

You go down to the post office and see teachers working there helping and a lot of them are doing other work too. For awhile mail was being delivered to our block sub-stations but it seems the Nisei that was doing the delivering had some kind of argument with the office staff and quit so now we have to go down for our mail too.

They weren't picking it up from the beginning so we've been trekking down since Tues. Nuts, the lights just went out. Goes on then goes on again and then go off then on... what is this anyway... a signal? Can't see what I'm typing. Maybe they don't want me to type anymore... The lights went on again and sounds like I've been stuttering.

At any rate... darn the lights went out again... Can't they make up their minds. As I was saying... this is about as much as we both know and tho we may know more we can't tell whether they are true or not. However, should you be curious in any way, just write and we'll try to clarify you.


Want to hear something good? At a meeting for us Nisei on our block to try and clarify things the representatives actually told us the gov't wanted to kill all of us. They had a good grudge or something against Campbell but anyway hated him something awful. Well, we have a new Acting P.D. now. We almost died when they said that Merritt and the gov't wanted to kill us all. It's things like that that disgusts us."
In addition this individual enclosed somewhat of a diary concerning the activities at Manzanar from November 16 to November 19, 1942. This diary is as follows:
"December 6:

Last night, at approximately 10 o'clock, Fred Tayama, former President of the Los Angeles Chapter of the Japanese American Citizens League was beaten up. A group of Ruffians went to his home, dragged him out of his bed and proceeded to attack him. (The gang was disguised, but some of them spoke, so if Tayama knew any of his assailants, he could recognize voices). At this time, his wife was taking a shower. Only he and his daughter (grammar school age) were at home. After he was thoroughly beaten up, Tayama was taken to the Hospital here in Manzanar. It seems as though he must have told the Internal Police (Manzanar Police) about one of the people who attacked him (a Mr. Ueno -- no relation to XXXXX). That person, a mess-hall worker, was taken into custody and sent to a jail in Independence (a small town not far from here).

Apparently, the mess-hall workers did not like the idea very much and so they began to make themselves heard.

This afternoon (Sunday), at one of the mess-halls (#22 where the person who was picked up formerly worked), a meeting was held. I did not attend since I knew nothing about it all (I was studying shorthand at this time). According to what I have been able to gather, a group of people wanted that fellow released from jail and returned to Manzanar. A protest meeting was held. Little by little, more and more people gathered around. Finally, it was suggested that a group of people delegate themselves as a committee to see about the obtaining of a release for that former mess-hall worker. By this time, quite a crowd had gathered and all of the people there wanted to see the outcome. Many were in favor of the idea, I presume; however, no doubt, many of the people were just curious, nosy, or sheep-like (follow the leader business).

En masse, the whole audience at the meeting began to go toward the Administration Building about half a mile or so away. Someone reported this to the Internal Police who apparently called the Military Police because when the crowd of people finally got to its destination, it found some U.S. soldiers (heavily armed) waiting for it. Evidently, this did not faze the people (men, women, and children). They stood around and began to denounce and threaten certain characters in Manzanar, (Japanese-Americans, among whom were mentioned were Togo Tanaka, Tokie Slocum, Kiyoshi Higashi (Chief of Internal Police), XXXXX brother who was a member of the Internal Police) and others. These people were called traitors, informers, and inu (dogs).

Note: -- In Japan, certain detective-like people sometimes went snooping around from house to house in search of clues. Hence, the name "Inu" since dogs go roaming around from house to house sniffing.
Additional note: -- The FBI and other such organs of the Government are viewed with extreme suspicion. Anyone suspected of aiding such agencies is tagged immediately as 'Inu'. Any tagged as 'Inu' is in danger of losing his hide to these murder-intending people who hate 'Inu'.
Further additional note: -- Anyone caught typing is instantly suspected of being an 'Inu'. He may be typing reports to the 'Government.' Hence, the reason for my printed work. I can't afford to take any chances. I am not too easily alarmed, but in this case, I feel sure that I am not 'seeing things where they ain't.'

The group of people, in addition to asking the release of Ueno, asked for the release of other people who are now in the Manzanar Jail for sentences of six months.

Note: -- The young boys (18 to 20) who were in jail for six months sentences were convicted of assisting a gang doing violence. These people heaved rocks through every window of a former Police-woman's home. This happened at night. Luckily, no one was hurt. All this happened about two or three weeks previously. (They're out now).

In addition, certain Center administrators were threatened. These were: The Project Director, Ralph Merritt; the Assistant Project Director, Mr. Campbell; the Chief Engineer, Mr. Harvey Brown; the Mess-hall Supervisor, Mr. Winchester, and the Chief of Community Services, Mr. Thomas M. Temple.

The crowd was ordered to disperse, but it refused. By this time, the crowd increased and the soldiers numbered about thirty. According to some of the people there, the soldiers had rifles and revolvers. In addition, some had portable machine guns and there was one machine gun emplacement set up.

By this time, it was near supper time, so most of the people returned home after a promise was exacted that the prisoner would be returned to Manzanar by 6:00 p.m. The crowd dispersed only after the soldiers left first. In going home, some of the people shouted, 'Banzai' a few times; others whistled or sang Japanese military or naval airs. Others just trekked home.

After supper, another meeting was held at the mess-hall where the previous one took place. Then, the crowd was divided into two sections -- one group went to the hospital and the other group went to the Police Station. The group which was sent to the Hospital was united with the one intent of not allowing Fred Tayama to escape from the Hospital. It was later found out that the person in question was whisked away from the Hospital earlier in the evening.

Note: -- According to later knowledge, I found out that Fred Tayama was still in the Hospital when the crowd got there. The crowd started to search the wards one by one, not omitting a single one. It even went so far as to go into the Women's Ward -- and the morgue. In the meantime, the Military Police gathered around the front entrance. By this action, the mob felt that Fred Tayama would go out the front way. The soldiers had machine guns set up also, so that too helped out that opinion.

When the crowd centered around the front end of the hospital, Fred Tayama was put in a stretcher and put into an ambulance which stood waiting by a side entrance. The mob saw it just then and surged toward it. The ambulance left just in the nick of time.

Seeing that its quarry had eluded it, the crowd immediately took up the cry, 'Tokie Slocum!' With murder in their hearts, the people stormed to Slocum's place about a quarter of a mile away. Just when the mob came into view of Slocum's home, it saw Slocum piling suitcases into a waiting ambulance. After the luggage was put in the ambulance, Slocum piled in and the ambulance was off! The mob had missed its prey again by a matter of a few minutes. It was very lucky for Slocum that the mob went after Tayama first that evening or else Slocum would not be alive now. Both men are hated by the majority of the Center. It has been said that a group of people has vowed to get Tayama and Slocum after the war is over.

The crowd moved on towards the Police Station. There, it milled around, discussing, cussing, and occasionally yelling something or other. Nothing drastic was done. The people numbered well over a thousand by this time (very rough guess). Most of the people did not know the issue at stake, but agitators constantly said things to stimulate the mob. It was very cold, so everyone was moving around to keep warm. Many lights were shining on the people so that the soldiers could see what was happening. No doubt, the soldiers were getting rather jittery about the whole affair.

Tonight, Sunday, there was supposed to be an Open Forum Discussion sponsored by the Adult Education Department featuring Mrs. Lucy Adams, Regional Director of Education and Recreation. Due to the tension of everyone in the Center, the Forum was called off. XXX-2 lines-XXX.

We headed toward the Administration Housing. It was very dark. At about fifty feet from the house, we heard someone say, 'Halt!'. We walked on one more step. Then, we saw a soldier. He said, 'Halt!' again. We stopped immediately without question. Then, he presumably cleared his rifle for action - we heard the bolt click. He called for someone by the name of Percy or something. We supposed that he was the Corporal of the Guard or something. He did not show up. The sentry asked us to state our business. I think, he must have had a cold or a sore throat. We couldn't hear him well. The fellow with me kept quiet. I said that we wanted to see XXXXX. XXXXX 'stated our business' while the other fellow and I stood very still with our arms held rigidly at our sides. He let us pass, but he followed us with his enormous (so it seemed to us) gun.

After that, we left the vicinity quickly. In fact, we were so eager to make our departure that we tripped over (or rather practically did) some cactus plants. He went home. I followed suit.

The topic for discussion at home was the current happenings. At about 10:10 p.m., someone went through our block rousing everyone. The dinner gong was run[g] a number of times.

Immediately, I thought that a fire had broken out in Manzanar. I put on my coat and dashed out the door and hurried to the mess-hall where people would usually congregate in any kind of an emergency. My brother and father followed me. About twenty people were gathered around the back steps of the mess-hall. It was terribly cold -- below freezing, I'm sure.

Shivering there in the cold, I found out that the soldiers had thrown a couple of tear gas bombs into the mob (which had grown rather large by then in spite of the cold). After tossing the bombs into the crowd, some of the soldiers began to shoot. Rifles and machine guns were used. According to the informant, about four people were hit -- one a youth of about 18 years.

The Block people (all men) who had gathered decided to go to the scene of action (they were prompted by someone) and my father and brother both went to see what was happening. That left my mother and my sister, so I stayed at home. Besides, I could not see the purpose of going down just to add to the general confusion.

The extremely odd thing was that all of the mess-hall gongs were being struck almost simultaneously all around us. The whole thing seems to have been very well planned and executed.

My father and brother returned at nearly midnight and reported that nothing more had happened and that the crowd had begun to disperse.


All is relatively quiet today. The neighborhood and children are playing and the older folks are still talking about the night before. Some of the 'in-betweens' are playing football and volleyball. Others are also in discussion groups.

At breakfast time, we saw posters which were put up by somebody not in the administration. It said that school will not be held today. All workers were told to stay at home. I guess that all did. There didn't seem to be any point in going to work today. The only people working are those in the Hospital, mess-halls, food ware-houses, and those who are distributing oil for the stoves.

According to information gleaned today, seven people were shot and injured, three were disabled rather badly by the tear gas, and two were killed. One fellow is now in the Hospital in a critical state. He had seven bullets in him (all in the back). From what I hear, most of the people were shot either in the back or in the side.

Last night one person was beaten up in a mess-hall because a group of people did not like him. I have heard that he was killed. The people who beat him up used wooden poles and one person wielded a hammer.

One more item is that the entire internal police force (all Nisei) have quit. Some of them ripped their badges (just recently acquired) from their shirts and flung them on the ground.

DECEMBER 7: -- 6:00 P.M.

Martial Law was declared according to a bulletin in the mess-hall. A Colonel Mueller is in charge at the moment. There will be no incoming or out-going mail. The bulletin said that schools will be open, but the Block Manager said that schools are closed. Something isn't clicking there.

DECEMBER 8: -- 11:00 A.M.

School is supposed to be running. This morning, I went to the Education Office. Only two of the office-workers were there at the time I was there. In the Community Services Division, no one was around. All offices were quiet.

The teachers were all at their respective classes yesterday (Monday). Today they were at their posts again in the morning. It's rather hectic work since the Administration Mess-hall is not running, the teachers helping with the work formerly done by the residents. Mrs. Lucy Adams, Regional Director of Education and Recreation, was helping with the waiting on tables. Everyone pitched in to help. Some of the make teachers helped with the dish-washing. After all the mess-hall work was finished, the teachers dashed to take charge of their classes.

Not very many students showed up for classes. In many cases, a group of people roamed around disturbing classes. Some teachers were locked in their rooms. Foul words were said to a few teachers. Finally, Dr. Genevieve Carter, Superintendent of Education, called all the teachers away from the classes. This was the end of school for the time being.

This morning, I found out from my father that the blacklist made up by the band of ruffians now in practical control of the residents of Manzanar consists of about seventy names. It seems that I am included on that list. My father found that out from a fairly reliable source, so both of my parents are worried. The people named on the blacklist have a very good chance of being beaten up. As in some other countries, terrorism rules here.

DECEMBER 8: -- 12:30 P.M.

According to an announcement made at the mess-hall during lunch, no work will be allowed to run except certain designated ones. There will be no school and no offices will be open. All block residents were told to wear something black on their clothing. The males must wear a black band and the others must wear black ribbons. It is supposed to denote mourning for the people who were killed and wounded that Saturday night. Previous, all block residents were urged to stay near their homes.

DECEMBER 8: -- 8:00 P.M.

Black bands and ribbons were distributed to each apartment in the block. I wear my band only for my own protection. I have no desire to tangle with the mob. Since I am already on a black-list, there doesn't seem to be any point in further aggravating the situation over such a small matter as the wearing of black.


Upon the urging of my parents, I have packed my suitcase in order that I may be ready to leave if and when the soldiers come after me. It seems that many people have been rounded up by the soldiers for questioning and for protective custody. According to my mother, about fifty people have been taken out of Manzanar.

This evening, mail dating to before December 6 was distributed. As yet, there has been no announcement as to the fact that mail will be allowed to go out of Manzanar.


Today, I heard a rumor to the effect that out-going mail will be allowed if the letters are taken to the Post-Office.

A story which seems to be authentic which is now going around is that a group of three girls talking to each other was the target of some soldiers' bullets. Apparently, the soldiers wanted to frighten the girls since no one was hurt.


All persons were notified to eat at their own mess-halls. There seems to be some sort of food shortage.

Today, I was warned not to post any letters since there is supposed to be censorship (that was a reason given to me). The mail box (about a mile away) is being carefully watched and people posting letters will be seen and be beaten up in all probability. The latter part is not a surmise actually since that was the warning given to me.

I have learned that a delegation of six residents who went to the administration to try to negotiate some sort of settlement did not return. They were apprehended and put under guard. A second group has not been set up as yet. However, there was a little talk of sending 'representatives' until half the camp is taken. That is foolish because such a move can never come about.

It is quiet now -- on the surface -- like the calm which precedes a storm. At present it isn't safe to talk, write, walk around, go out at night, typewriter (because people might assume that a person so doing is writing a report), or even THINK! It's dangerous to do anything. Rule is by violence. One never knows who the next person to be attacked will be. The only safe thing to do is to be quiet and docile. We still have not worked at our jobs. What will await anyone who works is made rather evident.

XXXXX who was beaten up by a gang because he was thought to be an informer of some type, was not killed as formerly rumored. He is expected to recover; however, he will not be entirely sane again. He used to be rather intelligent. Prior to evacuation, he worked as a bookkeeper.


Yesterday, at supper-time, it was announced that another of the gun-shot victims died at 8:00 A.M.

A couple of days ago, probably around December 8 or 9, all of the teachers were evacuated from Manzanar. They are now living in Lone Pine and in Independence.

This morning, a notice was put up in the mess-hall. It was without signature. In very good English (as it is not the case with the previous notices put up recently), it tried to state reasons for the conflict now. It appeared to be flagrantly untrue, but if people believed it all (and most people will, no doubt), the Government is all wrong in all it has done. Now, according to that notice, one of the issues is that Ueno (the man who was taken in custody for attacking Tayama) was so persecuted by the officials because he is supposed to have some information which would prove that one of the Caucasians worked some graft with the sugar supply at Manzanar. Ueno is also supposed to have some other 'proofs.'

Another issue (undoubtedly, people stay up nights trying to justify the no-work policy) is the idea of the people who were interned in camps. This notice accuses the Government of placing FBI informers in W.R.A. camps. It is felt that these informers were responsible entirely for the fact that persons were hauled away from their homes and jailed at the outbreak of the war. It is felt that all (according to my interpretation of the notice -- I read it through only twice) of the internees were placed in concentration camps without proof of guilt. All blame is placed on the FBI informers for the fact that this outbreak arose. The notice also stated that if the informers were not placed in the centers, such a thing would not have happened.

'Baloney!' I say. This thing has been brewing for a heck of a long time and almost anything could have set off this business.

In regard to the case of the internees, the group responsible for putting up the notices want unconditional releases for all the internees!

This evening, another notice was put up (this again in very good English) appealing to all Nisei -- to all Japanese descendants. It urged all such persons not to seek to relocate outside of Manzanar until everything is settled. It tried to appeal to the sense of loyalty towards the fellow people. It said that all of the people in America must see the situation 'as we see it.'

The group responsible -- the following will serve to give some sort of background to the situation. I am starting about the time two months ago, but it must not be assumed that the trouble began to brew then. Actually, trouble in general dated back to about the latter part of May, 1942. This was the month that the last mass group of evacuees arrived at Manzanar. Even at this time, unrest was to be discernible, but only to those who looked a little below the surface appearances. FBI 'stool-pigeons' were suspected. The Project Director was not trusted. Bitterness and disillusionment had struck the people in a passive state.

About three months ago (September), a Community Charter Commission of seventeen people was appointed by Mr. Ray Nash, then the Project Director. The method of the appointment was as follows:

At a Block Leader's Meeting (each block in Manzanar -- 36 in all -- elected one person to represent the block in all matters. This was a Block Leader) where all block leaders gathered once a week to discuss problems and work out solutions, it was announced that a Charter Commission would be formed. Each Block Leader was given a chance to name some people who he felt was capable of serving on such a committee as to formulate a Community Charter.

Approximately 70 names were submitted -- many names suggested by more than one Block Leader. The names were ranked in order by the frequency each name was mentioned. Mr. Nash then formally appointed the top seventeen people on that list. According to the Administration, this was done to facilitate matters.

The seventeen members got busy and with constant referring to Administrative Bulletins and orders from Washington, D.C. on certain policies already set, a Charter was drafted. It stipulated that a Community Council would be formed and then delegated certain powers to it.

Finally, the Charter was completed. A copy in English and one in Japanese was distributed to each apartment in Manzanar. A date, November 9, 1942, was set when the people would have an opportunity to either accept or reject the Charter. If the people accepted this means of 'self-government' (a misnomer to which almost everyone objected), the Charter would be put into operation immediately. If the people rejected the Charter, a new one would be drafted and put before the people. What everyone did not know is that the Project Director has the authority to force the people to accept the Charter if necessary -- vote or no vote.

About a month before November 9, posters were placed in all mass-halls denouncing 'self-government.' It was signed the 'Blood Brothers' -- thus translated from the Japanese language. The notice was printed in Japanese entirely. It was rather vicious in tone. The Internal Police tore the notices down from all of the mess-halls before noon. A slight attempt to trace the 'Blood Brothers' was made but soon abandoned.

About two weeks prior to November 9, each of the Commission members received at least one threatening note from the 'Blood Brothers.' These notes were very out-spoken. Again, efforts made to trace these persons were proven to be futile. No publicity of this was given.

Immediately, a Commissioners' Meeting was called. It was brought out at that time that the Commission members were intending to resign since the Charter was already completed, but in view of the fact that the threatening letters had demanded their resignation, some of the Commissioners felt that such action wold look as though they were quitting under fire. However, it finally ended by the Commissioners deciding to resign. Prior to resigning, it was decided that the November 9 deadline for voting acceptance or rejection should be postponed until November 30. This was done to allow time for the people to find out what the Charter contained. Also, by that time, it was felt that the majority of the beet-field workers would return.

After the Charter Commissioners resigned, it seemed that many of the Issei and Kibei were disgruntled about the whole situation. They did not care for the manner in which the Commissioners were appointed. (The method was not made public). They did not care for certain rulings embodied in the Charter. The Administration decided that a new Commission should be formed, two representatives from each of the thirty-five blocks, by open elections in each block. The November 30 voting date was disregarded.

Example of how the 'election' of the two representatives was held in Block XXXXX:

Two nights before the 'election', a block meeting was called to show the block members various fire-fighting apparatus and to discuss the Charter. Most of the Nisei knew something about hand-pumps, soda and acid extinguishers, etc., and most of the Nisei read the Charter if they were in the least interested in it. In addition, there were night classes going on. Because of these reasons, all of the Nisei except one stayed away from that meeting. There were about 30 to 40 Issei and Kibei at that meeting and only one Nisei XXXXX.

The meeting was conducted solely in Japanese. I caught the gist of the discussion, but, of course, not all of it. First, the fire-fighting equipment was displayed and explained. Then, the speaker, a Kibei fireman, explained what the block residents should do in case a fire started in the block. Then, discussion revolved around the nominating of people for the election two days hence. Two people were nominated -- both Kibei. This was really against the rules since the election was supposed to be an Open Election with anyone over 18 eligible to vote or be elected.

On the day of the election, I was surprised to discover that no one had voted. By then, it was the last half-hour of the polls being open. Then, I found out that some people were not allowed to vote. Then it came out. Two nights previously, what I had thought was merely the nomination was in reality an appointment 'by the will of the people.' A farce was being perpetuated!

Since such an idea was not acceptable to a couple of us, we protested. At first, our protests were of no avail, but finally, a new election was called. Ballots were taken to each apartment and filled out while the persons distributing the ballots waited for them at the door. This was the first time that I had ever seen an election run off in such a manner. The end result was that the two Kibei boys were elected! Democracy in Action!

All of the New Commissioners who were elected met with the Project Director, Mr. Ralph Merritt. The meeting dragged on and nothing was accomplished except that it was decided that final discussion would be tabled. Many of the people were outspokenly and vehemently against any type of self-government.

Some of the underlying thoughts which were expressed are:

'Since the army (and/or government) put us here, why can't it run us?'
'We've gotten along all right so far without self-government, why should we have it now?'
'What's wrong with the present set-up?'
'How can we have self-government in a place surrounded by barb-wired fences?'
Creek, Manzanar, 1942
"Evacuee children enjoying a hot summer afternoon in the mountain creek which flows through the desert on the border of this War Relocation Authority center. (Manzanar, 07/03/1942)

The majority of the new Commissioners were Issei and Kibei. Only a very few were Nisei. Of the fifty-five Commissioners present, only about four or five were Nisei. This meeting was held on Thursday, December 3. The disturbances occurred Saturday, December 6. No doubt, minions of the 'Blood Brothers' were spotted among the new Commission.

The term 'Blood Brothers' has been discarded now, I believe. The new name of the organization is 'The Black Dragon.'


Today, I learned that the school teachers are now working in the Administration Building. Many of them have returned from Lone Pine and Independence and are again living on the Project. Apparently, schools will be closed until the beginning of January.

>From a fairly reliable source, I have become cognizant of the following: Project Director Merritt feels that the residents of Manzanar do not want to return to work. He has decided to hire Caucasians to work in essential jobs unless the residents return to their places. If Caucasians are hired, the evacuees will not be permitted to work at all. That means that the evacuees will not receive any income.

Up to this date, Mr. Merritt has not issued any statement to the above effect, but he expected the people to go back to work without such a notice. He seems to have one point of view; the dominating society has another; the residents have none. Everything is not running smoothly between the Administration and the residents. One does not know what or how the other is thinking. There is no co-ordination or attempts at it anywhere.

>From the same source, I learned that not all of the people shot on December 6 were shot in the back. One of the High School teachers who had gone to the Hospital to inquire about those who were shot was told by the doctors that there the statement that all victims were shot in the back was false.


At noon today, an announcement was made during lunch that Mr. Merritt and Captain Hall of the Military Police would meet with representatives of the people of Manzanar. The group to meet them was supposed to be composed of three representatives from each block. After the announcement was made, the speaker said that the three 'representatives' were already chosen. Without mentioning the names of the people, he asked whether the choice was acceptable to the block residents. Many people acquiesced. Then, the names were disclosed -- all Kibei. There was a general applause, so that settled that. In order to forestall any dissension, the speaker asked whether the people wanted any substitutions for the representatives. No one spoke.

The meeting is scheduled for this afternoon."
Informant XXXXX who has recently been in Tule Lake Relocation Center, California, advised that short wave Japanese broadcasts are heard in the Tule Lake camp every night between 1:00 A.M. and 4:00 A.M. XXXXX stated that these broadcasts originate from Japan as far as was ascertainable.

XXXXX the conversations of certain females XXXXX were overheard and these individuals talked concerning broadcasts which they had heard originating from Japan. XXXXX advised that these conversations were heard at least on five different occasions and the individuals who spoke of hearing these broadcasts were different persons on each occasion. The individuals who spoke of hearing these broadcasts were Issei Japanese women and were unknown to XXXXX. Part of the conversation over-heard by XXXXX was to the effect that when Japan won the war damages would be paid by the United States Government to all Issei Japanese. These conversations were over-heard by XXXXX in the Autumn or Winter of 1942. XXXXX thought that the individuals who listened in on these broadcasts from Japan must do so after turning out all the lights of their particular place of abode, whereas it was XXXXX opinion that all lights were turned out in the Tule Lake Camp at 12 o'clock and any light seen thereafter was investigated by the Tule Lake officials. XXXXX was positive that the individuals who spoke about hearing broadcasts from Japan had personally listened in on these broadcasts.

XXXXX advised that as far as was ascertainable no organizations of Kibei or Issei had yet been organized at Tule Lake. As far as XXXXX could ascertain there was not a great deal of American agitation. Informant stated that most of the individuals in Tule Lake were interested in their pay checks and moral questions which arose from time to time. XXXXX recalled that in the summer of 1942 a proposal was submitted to the camp at large relative to broadcasting from Tule Lake to the Island of Japan. The plan was that certain individuals living at Tule Lake were being well treated, fed, clothed, et cetera. The purpose of this broadcast was to combat Japanese propaganda to the effect that the inhabitants of the various Relocation Camps throughout the United States were being abused. The plan was submitted to the Government Counsel of the camp and voted down. XXXXX recalled that previous to the vote which turned the proposal down, block managers throughout the camp were instructed to call all the Issei and Nisei together to explain the purposes of the broadcasts to Japan. However, XXXXX observed it was rather curious that only the Issei were called together and that the Nisei were not summoned.

XXXXX recalled that XXXXX was block manager of the block in which informant lived, which was Block XXXXX. Informant stated that XXXXX failed to call the Nisei in Informant's block. XXXXX further stated that this statement had been many times made in Tule Lake that "If you put your regular radio together in a certain way and use a certain wire installation, you can convert your radio to short wave". XXXXX could not recall hearing anything concerning broadcasting from the Tule Lake Relocation Center. XXXXX stated that communication would be made with a friend who was living in Tule Lake and an effort would be made to have this friend develop more information concerning the radio set-up broadcasts, et cetera, which are supposed to be going on at Tule Lake.

Special Agent XXXXX advised that he interviewed XXX-1 line-XXX at Clearfield, Utah on December 19, 1942 with a view to developing these individuals as informants at the Poston Relocation Center. The above persons had been released from Poston to work on farms at Clearfield and were returning to Poston on December 19, 1942. However, during the interview the above individuals indicated they would not be willing or able to give information of value and therefore further contact of those persons is not contemplated. The following personal information was secured concerning these individuals by Special Agent XXXXX.

XXXXX born XXXXX returned to Japan when seven years of age and stayed for eight years. Went to school while in Japan.

XXXXX born XXXXX returned to Japan when five years old, remaining for nine years. Attended school while in Japan.

XXXXX born XXXXX returned to Japan when two years old, staying ten years, attended school in Japan.

XXXXX born in XXXXX but been in America for some time.

All of the above individuals are from Poston and all were prior to evacuation living at Terminal Island, San Francisco. All had complied with the Selective Service Act, according to papers which they carried.

The following contraband inventory list was furnished by Mr. THEODORE LEWIS, Chief of Internal Security at the Topaz Relocation Center. It may be noted that all the chemicals and the telegraph key were received in the mail in one box and were intercepted by the WRA mail inspector:

Nickel Ammonium Sulphate 1 Vial
White Powder Chemical 1 Vial
Blue Powder 1 Vial
Potassium Nitrate 1 Vial
Copper Nitrate C. P. 1/8 Pound
Oxalic Acid 1 Bottle
Mercuric Oxide Red Powder 1/8 Pound
Potassium (C.P.) Ferricyanide ½ Bottle (Amall)
Potassium Permanganate 1 Bottle (Part)
Potassium Chlorate (C.P.) (KClO) Part Bottle
Cupric Oxide (CuO) Part Bottle
Potassium Iodide Granulated ½ oz.
Iodine USP Crystals ½ oz.
Silver Nitrate 1 oz.
Gold Powder -- no name Small Bottle
Silver Nitrate Merck 1 oz.
Cobalt Chloride Part Bottle
Phenolphthalein Powder Part Vial
Phenolphthalein Liquid Part Bottle Small
Potassium Ferrocyanide Part Bottle
Silver Nitrate ½ oz.
Litmus Solution ½ Bottle
Mercury (Bottle) 1 Pound
Lead Acetate Pb (C2H3O2) 2 Bottle Small
Barium Chloride 1 Pound
Potassium Bromide 1/4 Pound
Potassium Chlorate Teaspoon Powder
Antimony - Stibium Metal Small Can
Lead Nitrate Small Can
Potassium Dichromate Part Bottle
Silver Crystals Part Small Wood Vial
Powdered Zinc Part Small Wood Vial
Sodium Ferrocyanide Part Small Wood Vial
Magnesium Metal 1 oz.
BEET KNIVES 35 with tags
9 without tags
LIQUOR 16 Bottles with tags
1 Bottle Champagne - tagged
KNIVES 22 Kitchen Knives with tags
1 Carving fork (large)
1 Short Pocket Cleaver
1 File Knife (Pocket)
1 Kitchen Knife
5 "
3 Table Knives
1 Kitchen Knife
3 "
14 Miscellaneous
1 Bread Knife
2 Cleavers with tags
1 Hunting knife with tag
SICKLES 1 with tag
1 package of 6 with tag
HATCHETS 9 with tags
CROW BAR 1 (15 inches) with tag
CAMERA ? with tags
KODAK FILM 1 Box (2 rolls)
ALBUM 1 with tag
STRAIGHT EDGE RAZORS 1 Box of 5 with tag
PHONOGRAPH RECORDS 2 packages (13 pcs.) with tags
(3 pcs.)
CHEMICALS 1 box with tag
1 pkg. with tag
ICE PICK 2 with tag

"Some of the above items are in the process of being returned to the owners -- namely: hatchets, straight-edge razors, phonograph records and crow bar."

In addition, XXXXX advised that a Japanese whose name he did not then recall, but whose name he would ascertain, was receiving radio parts which he used for the purpose of repairing radios within the Center. These parts, according to XXXXX were not short wave parts, but in conjunction with other parts which the Japanese repairman might have, could easily be built into a short wave receiving set.
Radio repair shop, Minidoka, 1942
"General view - Radio Repair shop." (Minidoka, 12/10/1942)

Confidential Informant XXXXX advised that his subordinates had advised him that XXXXX in the Topaz Relocation Center, had been calling in groups of Japanese to translate Japanese short wave radio broadcasts.

XXXXX stated he had no definite proof of this, but the information had just reached him and he was passing it on for what it was worth.

Confidential Informant XXXXX advised that there was a definite rift between the Nisei and Kibei at the Center because there was a distinct difference in the way of thinking of the two groups. At the Assembly Centers the Nisei has almost complete power. At the present time however the Issei are getting the power away from the Nisei. At the present the majority of the meeting held at the Relocation Center are now held in the Japanese language. He states that the Issei have a constantly growing superiority complex and as a result of the rift between the Nisei and the Kibei groups there is constant growing tension which may soon come to a head. XXXXX attributes this to the fact the leaders have gotten too much power. He also states that because the better and the more intelligent people are somewhat afraid to enter into any political activity in so far as the Center is concerned, that the riffraff have gotten the leadership and as a result of their new found power they are prone to go to lengths in keeping with the ways of the more intelligent Japanese.

XXXXX states that at the time war broke out the Nisei were very much pro-American, but at the present time the attitude of the Nisei in camp is changing to an attitude of anti-Americanism because of the camp life and because they feel embittered because they no longer have their freedom. XXXXX then stated that prior to evacuation, the Nisei could speak very little Japanese, but since they have become centered in the Relocation Center, their interest in the Japanese language is developing and the majority of Nisei have improved their Japanese tremendously since they have arrived at Topaz. He states further that undoubtedly a great deal of this can be laid to the fact that the Nisei and Issei are in closer contact with each other than ever before and the Nisei are under a greater influence by the Issei than ever before.

An unidentified Japanese girl advised the writer that prior to the evacuation the vast majority of the Nisei would fight anyone who did or would make any statement concerning their Americanism or degrading their loyalty to this country. She stated, however, that because they had become embittered and because they were now subject to more Issei influence that probably at least half of the Nisei were on the fence and did not know whether to maintain their loyalty to the United States or turn their affections towards Japan.

It may be noted that XXXXX, a fifteen year old Japanese Nisei, came to the writer after his parents were interviewed as applicants for repatriation. This ladRepatriation requests, Poston, 1942 stated that his parents were very much in favor of Japan and it was their idea to take him to Japan, however, he did not wish to go to Japan because he did not know the Japanese language and was not acquainted with the Japanese mode and manner of living. He continued that in so far as the Issei were concerned they remembered what Japan used to be and did not know present circumstances. He then stated that it was because of the fact that the Issei remembered their Japanese background and because they were Japanese citizens that they staunchly retained their loyalty to Japan. He further advised that at least half the Nisei were on the fence in so far as their loyalty to either one country or the other was concerned. He stated that probably half the Nisei were strongly pro-American and the other half since they had been evacuated were subject to the influence of the Issei and did not seem to be able to make up their mind whether they wanted to attach their loyalty to the United States or to Japan. [PHOTO: "Residents of Colorado River Relocation Center for persons of Japanese ancestry requesting repatriation to Japan." (Poston, 06/1942)]




Will contact informants and obtain information relative to the reason for collecting funds at Tule Lake for the appeal of the YASUI case. It is to be noted that information has been received that the funds collected for the appeal of this case are not necessarily to be used in connection with the appeal of the YASUI case. Propaganda spread in an effort to raise these funds should also be ascertained.


Will contact informants and obtain information relative to the reason for collecting funds at Tule Lake for the appeal of the YASUI case. It is to be noted that information has been received that the funds collected for the appeal of this case are not necessarily to be used in connection with the appeal of the YASUI case. Propaganda spread in an effort to raise these funds should also be ascertained.


Will ascertain the activities and general background of XXXXX.

Will ascertain the location of the two short wave radio receiving sets used at the Poston Relocation Center.

Will ascertain who smuggled in the moving picture showing the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and also the individuals responsible for showing this picture. Information concerning the showing of this picture and the probable location of the short wave receiving sets can be most likely gained from one XXXXX. However, this individual should be interviewed away from the relocation camp and every precaution should be taken to protect this identity during the course of the interview.


Will check the records of the War Time Civil Control Authority and determine the present whereabouts of XXXXX, former residents in the Los Angeles area.

Will check the Field Office indices of the Field Division and furnish all information available concerning XXXXX, the latter of whom is running a mercantile store at Layton, Utah.


*The lead mentioned in reference report for the Los Angeles Field Division concerning one XXXXX is being reset under the name of XXXXX which has been ascertained to be Subject's name.

Will ascertain the background activities, et cetera of XXXXX at the Manzanar Camp.

Will ascertain the background and activities of XXXXX who were on the negotiating committee which contacted Mr. MERRITT, the Project Director, previous to the disturbance at Manzanar.


Will contact Confidential Informant XXXXX after January 22, 1943 relative to information secured from friends at the Tule Lake Relocation Center concerning the existence of short wave receiving sets in said camp.


Will ascertain to whom the telegraph key and the various chemicals were addressed, by interview of XXXXX at Topaz. This contraband was recovered by a WRA mail inspector at the Topaz camp.

Will ascertain the identity of the Japanese radio repairman and determine whether or not he is building short wave receiving sets at Topaz.

Will ascertain if XXXXX is permitting groups [of?] Japanese to translate short wave broadcasts originating from Japan [at?] Topaz Relocation Center.










CONFIDENTIAL INFORMANT XXXXX -- LIEUTENANT D. R. NAIL, Commanding Officer of the Military Guards at Topaz Relocation Center.


-- Table of Contents --