News Clippings from the Past

Part 4

A collection of news clippings from West Coast newspapers during 1942. Courtesy of Yoriko Watanabe Sasaki; in printed form by James Watanabe, M.D.

Valley Cities Put Alien Task Up to F. B. I.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation and Army authorities are competent to handle the problem of enemy alien evacuation and have the full confidence of the Association of Valley Cities, according to a resolution adopted unanimously at the association's latest meeting.

The resolution states:

"The Association of Valley Cities, being fully cognizant of the fact that the evacuation of all enemy aliens and also all American-born Japanese to points in Eastern Washington and other points distantly located from vital defense industries, has been given considerable thought and consideration by both individuals and also organizations, and that such evacuation has been considered by the Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation and the United States Army, is of the opinion that the Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation and United States Army authorities are fully competent to handle this problem to the best interests of all concerned, and therefore, by resolution spread upon the minutes of this meeting, express our most sincere confidence in their ability."

Chinese 'Girl Friend' Sad As Japs Leave B. C

Special to The Times.

VANCOUVER, B. C., March 4. -- A pretty Chinese girl was the only Oriental on the platform at the Canadian National Railways station here when the latest group of 50 Japanese left this city for Alberta.

She was there to say "adios" to a young Japanese on the train platform.

The sunset curfew kept all the Japanese well-wishers at home, for the train left after dusk.

Quiet reigned on the streets of Vancouver's "Little Tokyo." The Japs had been warned by 12 arrests on Monday night what would happen if they refused to obey Ottawa's edict.

Only one was arrested last night ... a boy of 15 years. He said he had no home and that his parents were in China. He could not speak English.


An estimated 8,400 persons eventually will have to leave Seattle under Army evacuation orders, a check of population statistics and alien registration figures disclosed today.

Of these, about 3,500 are American-born Japanese; 2,500 Japanese nationals; 1,400 Italian aliens, and 1,000 German aliens.

The proclamation issued yesterday by Lieut. Gen. J. L. De Witt, commanding general of the Western Defense Command, stating that all enemy aliens and American-born Japanese eventually would have to leave the coastal area of Washington is expected to affect a total of 14,500 persons. Throughout the whole area, including Oregon, California and Arizona, it is estimated that 200,000 persons will be affected.

Although General De Witt urged persons affected to move voluntarily, few in Seattle are doing this. The United States attorney's office reported that since the proclamation was issued it has received only one or two applications for travel permits, which all enemy aliens must obtain before leaving the municipality in which they live.

James Y. Sakamoto, American born Japanese publisher in Seattle, said leaders of the Japanese community are urging their people to be prepared to evacuate but not to leave hastily.

"We like the principle of being given the opportunity to leave voluntarily and individually," said Sakamoto, "but we feel that this might result in our people being kicked around from one town to another. We would rather wait awhile so we may go together to designated places.

"We feel that the basic principle of loyalty is to obey any order of the government in which we owe allegiance. If we had been permitted to remain it would have been an easier way for us to demonstrate our loyalty to the United States. But we will demonstrate our loyalty the difficult way by obeying the order.

"I think that is the way we all feel."


WENATCHEE, March 5. -- (AP) -- Ten Japanese workmen employed by the Great Northern Railway Company here are to be discharged next Sunday, railway officials said today. Dismissal instructions ??? ??? company headquarters.


No "mass migration" of Japanese, or even of a few individuals, is under way in the Puget Sound area, James Y. Sakamoto, leader of the Japanese-American Citizens' League, said today.

"We don't know where to go," Sakamoto said. "We are getting prepared to wind up our business affairs, but as for actual packing and moving, we are doing nothing until we are told where to go."

Japanese work in the fresh-produce lands is almost at a standstill, Sakamoto said.

"We are doing some planting, but the banks won't give us any money," he reported.

Sakamoto said he would confer in San Francisco Sunday with the national board of the league on evacuation problems.

435 Japanese At U. W.; Only 11 Alien-Born

Four hundred and thirty-five Japanese students were enrolled at the University of Washington at the beginning of the year, it was announced today by University officials, who have completed a check of the foreign-born and native-born "enemy aliens" in the student body.

Of the 435 Japanese, school officials said, only 11 are citizens of Japan. The other 424 are of American birth.

In the student body of about 8,400 young men and women, there is only one Italian citizen, but there are 14 German citizens. Students are classified by race, rather than nationality. Therefore the number of Italians and Germans of American birth is not known.

There are no evacuation plans for any of these students as yet. At the University of California, there are 315 American-born Japanese, the Associated Press reported from Berkeley. The student body also includes 75 German, 6 Italian and 11 Japanese alien students. The students have been urged to remain where they are, since immediate evacuation orders have not yet been issued by Lieut. Gen. John L. De Witt of the Western Defense Command.

Japanese Dismissed

SACRAMENTO, Calif., March 5. -- (AP) -- Fourteen employees of Japanese ancestry were dismissed by the State Personnel Board today because of "lack of confidence" in them on the part of other employees and the Public in general. Earlier, 20 Board of Equalization employees of Japanese ancestry were dismissed.

East Side Doesn't Want Japs, Says

Governor Quizzed on State's Alien Policy

Seattleites Favor Removal of All Nipponese, Millikin Declares

[previous section missing] (Continued from Page 1)

e council, submitted the declaration but did not testify.

Another communication, from a Bainbridge Island Civilian Defense Council, urged removal of all enemy aliens.

Evacuation to points at least 100 miles east of Seattle was urged by Mayor Earl Millikin, but Mayor Harry P. Cain of Tacoma thought Pierce County's safety would be protected if Japanese residing there would [be] restricted to a Puyallup Valley area, under protective custody.

Governor Langlie said public sentiment is opposed to locating any enemy evacuees in Eastern Washington.

"In that part of the state there are irrigation systems, orchards, pea and beet fields which can be fire hazards, large timber stands, dams," he explained.

"Those sections of the state feel they have as much, in their way, to protect from sabotage as does the West Side, where our industries are mainly located. The problems on the East Side is about the same as the West Side."

"What responsibility do you feel the state has?" Arnold inquired.

"Our responsibility is to go along on what the government outlines," Langlie replied. "We are concerned primarily with safety of operation. Safety to our airplane plants, shipyards, aluminum, yes, and food industries, must be our first consideration.

"Being closest to the enemy and a possible point of first attack, we have a responsibility also to our civilian population.

"It is pretty necessary for us to keep some reserve in Eastern Washington for the care of our own loyal citizens, in the event they may have to be moved or evacuated in the case of attack. We have to keep channels open so that in the event of a civilian evacuation people would have a place to go in the Eastern half of the state."

Langlie outlined the location and occupation of Washington's 14,400 Japanese, both aliens and American-born.

"Most of the Japanese are concentrated in King and Pierce counties, you have mentioned," Congressman Curtis observed.

"That is also your most strategic area as far as war production is concerned, is it not?"

"Yes, it has the largest concentration of industry in the state," Langlie agreed.

"Is it your recommendation to the committee that the problem should not be on the basis of convenience or on aspects such as hurting the feelings of certain residents, but on safety?" Curtis interrogated.

"As I've said we are in war," the governor responded. "We have a primary job of keeping our power plants and factories going."

"Do the Japs here make the people jittery?" Curtis inquired.

"In a measure but I would say the public attitude on the whole has been quite sane," Langlie answered. "There have been no serious difficulties and few indications of malice or intense jitteriness as you term it; no riots or any serious situation. How far it will keep that way with the war moving the way it is I can't say, but the people here in this state have kept their feet on the ground."

Tolan delved into the danger of forest fires.

"There is a tremendous hazard," said Langlie. "Particularly in the summer months there is great danger."

"From sabotage or attack?" asked Tolan.

"There are possibilities on either of those fronts."

"Do the people of Washington feel that a possible lack of farm help would be adequate reason for not evacuating aliens?" Curtis inquired in closing.

"I doubt it," the governor answered.

-------------FROM WHERE???

'We Can't Take a Chance on Another Pearl Harbor' -- Millikin

?been little sabotage are not persuasive to me. They are no indication we should not be on the alert. The history of this whole war -- Norway, Holland, France, other nations invaded by Hitler, has shown that sabotage is almost invariably postponed until the time of actual attack."

"The reason there hasn't been sabotage here is because it has distinctly been withheld by Tokyo," Millikin exclaimed.

"I think that's obvious, don't you?" said Tolan.

In conclusion Millikin estimated that there may be 7,900 loyal Japanese and 100 that are a dangerous menace.

"That 100 could let airplanes in during blackouts and set destructive fires," he added.

Mayor Cain of Tacoma indicated no alarm over the Japanese situation and believed they could be lodged in the Puyallup Valley with some sort of protective cordon placed around them.

"Do people in your city feel the Japanese should be removed?" asked Curtis.

"They feel very strongly on both sides of the question; they are violently in opposition on as


that is not its purpose," Congressman Arnold commented.

"Would you care to express your opinion on whether American-born as well as alien Japanese should be evacuated?" Arnold inquired.

Spangler said that he has found it "exceedingly difficult to divine the Oriental," and that he believed it might be to the advantage of both those evacuated and the communities from which they are removed if it were done.

"You realize what a problem it would be to separate the dangerous and nondangerous?" Curtis suggested.

"Yes, sir."

"And that they should be treated as a group instead of trying to separate them?"

"That is my opinion in view of the situation the country is in now."

Floyd Oles, representing the Washington Produce Shippers' Association, opposed evacuation, and said the removal of aliens would curtail produce growing. In response to questions by the committee, he said that the association represents nine or ten shipping organizations, of which five were Japanese cooperatives.

James Y. Sakamoto, spokesman for the Japanese-American Citizens' League, was the opening witness at the afternoon hearing, and testified that no members, to his knowledge, has sent money to Japan, either to the government or individuals there.

"How many, if ??? ??? ???....... elements of society. I think it is easier to pick up questionable characters in locations where they reside and have their employment."

Edward W. Allen, chairman of the international fisheries commission, told the committee that the entire industry desires full-scale evacuation of enemy aliens.

The hearing will resume Monday at the United States Courthouse.

Tolan Requests Alien Action

Emphasizing that an evacuation order is imminent, Chairman John H. Tolan at the congressional committee investigating alien removal problems here, yesterday sent a telegraphic appeal to President Roosevelt to appoint a Pacific Coast alien property custodian and coordinator.

"I think it imperative that appointment of an alien property custodian and also coordinator for enemy alien problems precedes or at least coincides with announcement of (evacuation) order," the message read.

"Unnecessary to indicate to you that coordinator should be experienced administrator trained in handling community and family relationship problems, including welfare, health, resettlement.

"Coordinator's job will include reemployment and agricultural problems. Urge also that coordinator's office start at once making plans for creating boards similar to present enemy alien hearing boards or comparable local machinery for examining loyalty of Italian and German aliens and certification of status.

"Coordinator should keep local officials informed of developments and consult them as far as possible."

Tolan said last night he had not yet received a reply from the President.

Japanese Preparing To Quit West Coast

LOS ANGELES, Feb. 28. --(AP)-- Mike M. Masaoka of San Francisco, national secretary and field executive of the Japanese American Citizens' League, disclosed late today that his organization is preparing all Japanese -- American and foreign-born alike -- for an ultimate mass evacuation of the Pacific Coast.

Circulars have been sent to key places telling all Japanese to get ready for a movement to some inland location under government supervision and to abandon property in California, Oregon and Washington.

"We are preparing our people," said the youthful official, "to move out. We want them to go without bitterness, without rancor and with the feeling that this can be their contribution to the defense of the United States.

"We want to convince them that it will be patriotic to make this sacrifice, and a sacrifice it will be."

Masaoka said the campaign was undertaken voluntarily by the Japanese American League, and was not guided by war developments "or the work of pressure groups seeking the ouster of our people."

"Why jeopardize this country or our people by trying to insist on staying, or even by pursuing our legal rights as citizens of this country to contest evacuation," Masaoka asked, referring in the latter phrase to American born Japanese.

"Naturally our people would leave instantly on orders from the army, but we hope to leave, you might say, before the army sees fit to kick us out."

Masaoka said the league of 20,000 members represents more than 100,000 Japanese on the Pacific, with property he estimated at one hundred million dollars.

Rumors Grow From Scrap Of Paper in Wind

OXNARD, Calif., March 9. --(AP)-- Here's an example of how those war rumors operate:

It was windy. A little whirlwind sucked bits of a California-printed Japanese-language newspaper into the air and dropped them in the yard of a resident in South Oxnard. The man ran to Police Headquarters. Capt. Ivan I. Hawes of the Army Air Corps was notified. While he was investigating, the rumormongers got busy. In a short time the incident had been blown up to the point where Japanese pilots had dropped leaflets on Oxnard.

Every time a plane flew over residents craned their necks, expecting leaflets that didn't fall. Civilian aircraft observation posts were manned.

Well, there weren't any Japanese planes and there weren't any leaflets.

Japs Evacuated, Bainbridge Life Eases Back to Normalcy

Life on Bainbridge Island eased back to normal today after eight hectic days in which evacuation of the island's Japanese was completed.

The Japanese, the entire 227 of them, left the island yesterday, and today were bound, in a special train, for Owens Valley, Calif.

Guards were absent this morning from the ferry docks at Winslow and Eagledale and commuters rather missed them. The soldiers had been on duty since a week ago Monday, investigating every automobile that boarded or left a ferry and interrogating some passengers.

Some Soldiers Remain

Not all the soldiers had left the island, however. There still is a detachment on duty guarding the farms and homes of the departed Japanese until such time as new tenants take over.

Most of the soldiers, however, including Maj. C. F. Bisenius, who had charge of the evacuation, went with the special train which carried the "orphans of the war" southward.

Residents of the island were somewhat nonplussed today as they went about their business in a non Japanese area. School children especially felt the situation. Many a seat in the grade schools and high school was vacant, the occupant having left the island under the Army's order.

Filipinos in Fields

At the Eagle Harbor Market, established by John Nakata, a Japanese born on the island, white men served the customers. Some berry and pea fields were being cultivated, but by Filipinos, not the usual Japanese.

Ferries late last night carried many automobiles, loaded with Filipinos and bearing California licenses. These men had been summoned to take over the work on some farms.

At the Kitayama greenhouse at Pleasant Beach, soldiers stood guard to protect property until new tenants would take over.

There was no work in progress at two of the largest strawberry fields, one at Fletcher Bay and the other near Manzanita. The fields have been leased but the new operators had not had time to take over. Soldiers watched these properties also.

Removal Commended

Island residents had great praise for the efficient and humane manner in which the Army conducted yesterday's evacuation. Most of the Japanese removed had been born on the island and the majority of the elders had lived there as long as 30 Years.

The Japanese left the island at 11 o'clock on a special ferry, arriving at Colman Dock just before noon. They then were escorted to a special train which stood on switching tracks in Alaskan Way. Lunch was ready on the train when the Japanese boarded and was served as the train started south.

Tears marked the departure from the island, even stoical elders giving way to emotion. The attitude on the ferry trip was one of forced gayety, except for the younger children, and there were more tears as the Japanese boarded the train. Even soldiers, escorting the evacuees to the train, wept openly.

Future Plans Unknown

Major Bisenius said he did not know what the Japanese would do in Owens Valley. He explained his job was to evacuate them and that he has no knowledge of future plans. He praised the manner in which the Japanese cooperated in the evacuation procedure.

The Japanese as they left all expressed the opinion that they would be back "as soon as we are allowed." Some are trying to arrange to move to Eastern Washington farms, where they could operate cooperatively.


IN SAN FRANCISCO YESTERDAY -- Perched on baggage, with a soldier standing by, this small Japanese evacuee awaited the return of his parents. They were among 660 Japanese evacuated from San Francisco and sent to Santa Anita Race Track near Los Angeles, an assembly center for Japanese aliens and American-born Japanese. --A.P. wirephoto.


Evacuation of Japanese From Northwest Will Be
Topic Of Congressional Committee

Mass evacuation of Japanese from the Pacific Northwest will be among the problems considered here Saturday when the special congressional committee "investigating national defense migration," better known as the Tolan committee, holds hearings here.

Date of the hearings was announced yesterday at local offices of the War Production Board, but it has said the place where they will be held has not yet been selected.


Congressman John H. Tolan of California, chairman of the committee, and Congressmen John J. Sparkman, Alabama; Lawrence F. Arnold, Illinois, anti Carl T. Curtis, Nebraska, will conduct the hearings.

The first three are completing investigations in San Francisco and are to be joined by Curtis on their way North, it was said. A fifth member of the committee, Frank C. Osmers Jr. of New Jersey, has entered military service and will not be present.

WPB spokesmen yesterday said it has not been determined who will be asked to appear as witnesses. Prominent witnesses in San Francisco included the mayor, chief of police, state attorney general, and representatives of a number of farm organizations.


Probability was expressed that the hearings will continue over Monday.

Meanwhile, it was announced yesterday that Senator Mon C. Wallgren, chairman of a special joint committee of West Coast senators and representatives inquiring into the Japanese situation, will arrive in the Northwest at the end of the week.

Wallgren will personally survey steps being taken by the justice and war departments in dealing with the Japanese espionage and sabotage menace, said dispatch from Washington. D.C.

B. C. Veterans Would Remove All Japs Inland

VANCOUVER, B.C., Feb. 23. --(AP)-- The British Columbia Command of the Army and Navy Veterans of Canada, in week-end convention here, unanimously endorsed a resolution calling for the immediate removal from the coastal area of all Japanese, regardless of sex or citizenship, after hearing members, who came from fishing centers along the coast, charge that some Japanese in the coastal communities were openly sympathetic to Japan and had actually celebrated Japanese victories.

Japanese Buying Canadian Bonds

VANCOUVER, B. C., Feb. 23. -- Although pointing out that "enforced removal of productive Japanese threatens destitution and poverty rather than the ability to invest in Victory Bonds," the Japanese newspaper New Canadian here, states editorially that the community will do its utmost in the matter of subscriptions. The editorial says: "The workers (Japs) will do their best to raise the maximum total of subscriptions ...but it is probably needless to point out that the Japanese community has a tough proposition on its hands.

"Our fishermen, sawmill workers, dry cleaners, corner grocers and berry farmers have never enjoyed a high-earning power. Now our difficulties have increased hundred-fold."


By Associated Press.

SAN FRANCISCO, Feb. 23. -- The government wants to handle evacuation of enemy aliens with the least possible hardship on the persons affected.

That was established clearly today as a congressional committee resumed its inquiry into problems related to removal of Japanese, Germans and Italians from areas of military and strategic operations.

Mayor Frank Gaines of Berkeley, one of today's witnesses, said he hoped that aliens evacuated could be put to some productive endeavor, so the expense to the government would be less, and so the aliens would not be destitute at the end of the war."

To this Representative John H. Tolan, Democrat, California, chairman of the committee, commented "we have to think of reprisals, too; in Japan and Singapore, for instance. We also have to live here in the future. The problem is to determine how best we can handle the situation with the least hardship possible."

Mayor Gaines suggested that the aliens be divided into three categories -- dangerous, suspicious and friendly. He would let the federal agencies handle the first two groups. As for the third -- he cited expatriated Jews from Germany as in this class -- he would let local police determine their degree of friendliness, in the belief that police have a closer knowledge of the people.

Chairman Tolan commented: "I think you are right."

John Hassler, Oakland city manager, said he felt the best way to handle the situation would be to evacuate all Japanese, regardless of whether they asserted their loyalty. He said he believed the Japanese could best show their loyalty by leaving the proscribed areas at the government request. They could return later if their loyalty was determined by investigation. On the other hand, he would have Germans and Italians investigated before they were removed.

The committee was eager to hear from Tom C. Clark, western coordinator of alien evacuation, who was flying here from a conference in Washington, D.C.

Mayor's Advice Sought

Committeemen called for testimony from mayors of Oakland, Berkeley and other San Francisco Bay cities; from Protestant clergymen interested in preventing unnecessary hardships in the removal of alien families, and from officers of the Japanese-American Citizen's League.

Chairman Tolan, after a weekend conference with Lieut. Gen. John L. DeWitt, commanding general of the Western Defense Command and Fourth Army, said the committee had been informed that alien evacuation would proceed step by step, with no mass removals planned, but that specific methods would be outlined later by Washington.

Because Clark, western co-ordinator of alien evacuation, might he in a position to disclose what removal arrangements have been devised, the committee made special efforts to obtain his testimony.

U. S. Revokes Order Excluding All Nisei From Pacific Coast

War Department Announces Policy Based Upon
American Successes In Pacific Areas, Lessened Dangers

WASHINGTON (AP) -- The War Department Sunday revoked its order excluding all persons of Japanese ancestry from the west coast. An announcement by the Army said that the revocation order was issued by Maj. Gen. Henry C. Pratt, chief of the western defense command, with the approval of the War department at San Francisco; General Pratt said the revocation would become effective Jan. 2.

"Favorable progress of the war in the Pacific, as well as other developments," was given as the reason for the revocation order, which provides that any person of Japanese ancestry about "whom information is available indicating a pro-Japanese attitude" will continue to be barred from the coast states.

More than 115,000 persons of Japanese ancestry were evacuated from strategic areas on the west coast, the states of California, Washington and Oregon. The majority of them eventually were transferred to relocation centers located chiefly in the Mountain states, including Arizona, Utah, Wyoming and Colorado.

The evacuation was carried out early in 1942 under the terms of a presidential executive order, by Lt. Gen. J. L. DeWitt, then chief of the western defense command. In its announcement the Army said:

Those persons of Japanese ancestry whose records have stood the test of Army scrutiny during the past two years will be permitted the same freedom of movement throughout the United States as other loyal citizens and law-abiding aliens.

"The decision to revoke the exclusion orders, first applied on March 24, 1942, was prompted by military considerations. Since the evacuation, our armed forces steadily have pushed the enemy in the Pacific farther from our shores and closer to the Japanese home islands. Although hard fighting is ahead in the Pacific, it no longer can be said as it could be said in 1942, that an enemy invasion on the west coast on a large scale is a substantial possibility."


IN LOS ANGELES YESTERDAY -- Beginning the nation's greatest mass migration, these Japanese boarded buses which transported them to Owens Valley, 235 miles north of Los Angeles, where the government's first alien reception center is under construction. The nearly one hundred Japanese who left yesterday were skilled workers who will help prepare the camp for thousands of others to arrive later. -- Wirephoto.

Two Jap Groups Leave L. A. For Isolated Camp

LOS ANGELES, March 23. --(AP)-- A strange caravan filed out of Los Angeles today as 1,000 Japanese, many with automobiles piled high with humble possessions, went into isolation for the duration, that Uncle Sam might carry on with his war effort undisturbed by their presence in this vital defense zone. Their destination is Manzanar, 235 miles away in the spreading expanses of the Owens River Valley. There contractors are hastily constructing a camp which eventually will house 10,000 persons on whom the government wants to keep its eye until the war is over. They traveled in 150 cars of all types, guarded by 50 Army vehicles. A preliminary party of 100 Japanese left Saturday.

As the auto caravan left from Pasadena's Rose Bowl, another group of Japanese, also laden with bundled belongings, boarded a train for the trip to Manzanar. The first groups were composed mainly of tradesmen, all leaving voluntarily to prepare the camp for other thousands of evacuees, including their families, who will follow soon.

Internees Together In Hongkong -- Japs

TOKYO (From Japanese broadcasts), March 23. --(AP)-- Shiroshichi Kimura, Japanese consul, who was in Hongkong through the siege and fall of the British colony, said today that United States citizens interned there were housed together and had organized their own committee to represent them to Japanese authorities.

Kimura said William P. Hunt, widely known United States business-man, and a Standard Oil Company representative named Gilso "had organized the American internees very well."

B. C. Japs, Sent Inland, Can't Take Families

Special to The Times.

VANCOUVER, B. C., March 23. -- First 100 of the 3,000 Vancouver Japanese to be sent to work in pulp mills and logging camps of Ontario will leave within the next few days, it was announced today The Japanese will be selected carefully for this work. Family men may be included in the first contingent, but will not be allowed to take their families with them. Women and children will remain in British Columbia.

Japanese labor also will be used to improve the Caribou ???way, from Clinton north, and several sections of the Trans-Canada Highway in British Columbia.


WASHINGTON, March 23. --(AP)-Representative Angell, Republican, Oregon, urged the Senate immigration subcommittee today to approve a bill to permit the secretary of war to detain during wartime natives of the United States he considers allied with an enemy country.

Subcommittee Chairman Stewart, Democrat, Tennessee, who introduced the bill, said it was "frankly aimed at the Japanese."

Angell rectified that Pacific Coast residents were "greatly concerned over the number of Japs in this country concentrated about strategic points."

'Laden With Dynamite'

The Oregonian submitted letters from Oregon officials of the American Legion declaring the "problem is laden with dynamite" and demanding "legislation with teeth in it."

"Unless some legislation is adopted to meet the problem," Angell said, "another Pearl Harbor may be enacted on the Pacific Coast."

R. N. Flournoy, assistant to the legal adviser of the State Department, said his department favored the general objective of the bill but differed with certain policy provisions.

Closed Hearing Due

Stewart said questions of policy would be considered at a closed hearing later.

Edward Z. Ennis, director of the Justice Department's alien-control unit, said the objectives of the bill were being achieved already by military authorities under a presidential proclamation.


Influx of Nipponese From West Coast Stirs Mid-westerners,
"Wild Threats" Made, Declares Governor

By United Press.

DENVER, March 21. -- Gov. Ray L. Carr called today for "immediate federal action" as a steady growing migration of Japanese from the West Coast to small towns and farms of the Rocky Mountain area brought American Legion demands for concentration camps.

The Colorado governor and the Colorado American Legion voiced their demands as farmers in Colorado's Arkansas Valley warned that "open violence" might result from the influx of Japanese.

"We are called upon to remember Pearl Harbor," said M. Lyckholm, Legion adjutant. "We do recall with bitterness that Pearl Harbor was made possible by aliens permitted by our laxity to be residents."

Threat to Security Seen

Both the Legion and the governor said the "peace and security was threatened by aliens who singly and in groups, are entering Rocky Mountain States with West Coast travel permits and settling themselves on farms and in small towns. The Legion said the Japanese often were aliens accompanied by their American-born children and in many cases moved in with aliens "already established in the state."

"At least one mass meeting has been held," Governor Carr said in a letter to U. S. Attorney Thomas J. Morrissey. "Loose talk and wild threats are made.

"This alien problem demands immediate action by federal agencies. While many look to the state government for the control of the situation, it is clear under the Constitution that it is a matter which is almost entirely within the jurisdiction of the federal government."

Carr First to Agree

Governor Carr recalled that he was first among Western governors to agree to internment in his state of Japanese aliens evacuated from the West Coast.

"This was not an invitation to anybody, however," the governor said.

The Colorado Legion said in a resolution that Congress and the President should provide for the immediate imprisonment of some aliens, for the duration of the war in humanely conducted concentration camps." The Legion asked Governor Carr to call a special legislative session to repeal laws now permitting aliens to purchase land in Colorado.

The governor announced he has received resolutions from citizens at La Junta and Swink in Southern em Colorado, where the influx was reported heaviest. The resolutions demanded the Japanese be placed under guard. The Swink resolution adopted at a mass meeting, declared "open violence" might result from the influx.


By Associated Press.

WASHINGTON, April 15. -- Senator Gillette, Democrat, Iowa, said today he might ask the Senate to investigate reports that interned Japanese nationals in this country "are being paid at a higher rate than our soldiers and others in the armed forces."

"I have a number of reports that, if true, would give ample reason for adopting more strict regulations of these interned aliens," the Iowa senator said.

Gillette said that much of his information had come from Kilsoo Haan, Korean, who has been engaged in anti-Japanese activities, in this country and the Hawaiian Islands for several years.

"One report is that Japs now interned were receiving more than $50 monthly compared with $21 monthly going to selectees," the senator said. "Another stated that Japs from California have been interned near the water-supply sources of Los Angeles where it might be easy to cause serious trouble.

"Still another is that in a Jap camp in North Dakota the interned Japs have been holding political meetings attended by Germans from the nearby community. My information is that guards outside the fence around the camp have been kept outside of hearing distance from these political sessions."

The senator said in an interview that interned Japanese were "fed well, clothed well, and have been entertained well" and he was considering offering this proposed four-point program:

1. Place all Japanese, both native and aliens, under United States authority and remove them from all Pacific Coast states.

2. Rescind all civil rights for Japanese in this country and Hawaii for duration of the war.

Farm Draft Urged

3. Draft all Jap males between 20 and 44 Years for agricultural work under Army control and at basic Army pay. They might be used to produce vegetables.

4. Support all other alien Japanese with enemy funds now frozen in this country.

"The present frozen funds amount to about $130,000,000, with several hundred millions more that could be liquidated," the senator said.

Even Into Kansas

GOVERNOR RATNER of Kansas announced that Japanese are not wanted in his state, and has ordered the state patrol and other state employees to turn back at the borders any Japanese who may seek to enter. The governor has a right to express prejudice, and also the right to issue orders; but whether prejudice or orders will prevail against federal policy is another matter. The Army is evacuating Japanese from some states, and its authority to do so cannot be questioned. The Army must have just as much authority to say where Japanese evacuees shall go -- even into Kansas.

The Good With the Bad

BAINBRIDGE ISLANDERS, receiving letters from their former Japanese neighbors, now evacuated to California reception centers, conclude that there are Japs and Japs.

Bainbridge Island Japanese, largely American born, many of them educated right there on the island, complain that the California Japs with whom they are now associated are "so Oriental." The Washington Japanese, as their Bainbridge Island acquaintances can testify, speak American and think American, and they do not exactly "take" to the evacuees from localities like the Los Angeles "Little Tokyo."

The situation is one that may give pause to the Army authorities who are competently administering the Japanese evacuation. A degree of segregation may turn out to be the part of wisdom.



Incorporation of an organization to be known as Victory Farms, with the purpose of continuing production of agricultural products when Japanese are evacuated was announced in Auburn today.

Incorporators, both growers and business men of King and Pierce Counties, are: Frank Chervenka, farmer and bulb grower, Sumner; Ralph J. Pommert, bulb grower, Pacific City; J. A. Oliver, banker, Kent; D. Vitulh, farmer, Bothell; I. Unbedacht, farmer, Seattle; H. S. Bennett, banker, Auburn; and Ben L. Andre, farmer, Tacoma. Bennett is president of the corporation, Chervenka, vice president, and Ralph J. Pommert, secretary.

Farms to Be Cared For

"The corporation will undertake the care, management and operation of property of any person who has been or is about to be evacuated from any area between Bothell and Southern Pierce County," the incorporators said. "No individual will profit from the plan and any profit that might accrue will be turned over to the United States Treasury."

The organizers said the firm was inspired by concern over a possible decrease in agricultural production in the area when Japanese are evacuated from the 565 farms which they now operate in King and Pierce Counties.

Farm Security Administration officials have conferred with the incorporators, it was said, and the plan has been presented to the F. S. A. office in San Francisco for official approval. If such approval is obtained, a federal loan will be sought to finance the operations.

Get Set to Move, Japs Told

The federal government cautioned Japanese along the Coast that preparations should be made without delay for closing their affairs before moving to assembly centers, the Associated Press reported from San Francisco today.

All plans for selling or storing property should be made, but final disposition of living necessities should not be carried out until evacuation orders are posted, the Wartime Civilian Control Administration said. Japanese also were warned not to give up their regular jobs until orders to evacuate are posted in their particular district.

No date has been set by the Army for further evacuation of Japanese in the Puget Sound area but it was believed one would be set as soon as the assembly center on the Puyallup Fair Grounds was ready for occupancy today. The project was completed yesterday in the record time of 17 days.

Center to House 8,000

The center will be used to house 8,000 Japanese until they can be moved to resettlement centers. Barracks for 3,000 persons have been built in the fair grounds proper. On one fair-ground parking lot is another settlement for 3,000 persons and accommodations have been built for 2,000 more on two other parking lots.

Central mess halls have been provided for each unit and there is a 100-bed hospital to serve the entire center. All buildings are heated by wood stoves and are well lighted. The Japanese are expected to supply their own furniture for the living quarters.

ARMY'S EDICT -- Soldier nailing up placards containing Civilian Exclusion Order No. 1 and special instructions to all Japanese residents of Bainbridge Island, telling them exactly how they are to comply with the evacuation decree.

-- Army officers handing out copies of Civilian Exclusion Order No. 1 to Japanese residents of Bainbridge Island. A copy was provided for every one of the 274 Japanese on the island.

Migrating Japs Cause Storm

KLAMATH FALLS, Ore., March 31. --(AP)-- Community resentment flared in Southern Oregon today against migrating Japanese who were forced from their homes in Tacoma, Wash., by evacuation orders.

Sheriff Lloyd Low of Klamath County took three Japanese men, a woman, a girl and a baby, in protective custody pending a decision. The six, whose names were withheld, had been hired by Don Hubble of the Merrill district who knew them in Tacoma. Hubble anticipated no community resentment when he helped the Japanese voluntarily move to his farm, which is out of military area No. 1.

-- Japanese residents of Bainbridge Island ?????ing their crops. Neely, vice president of R. D. Bodle Company, will try to find managers to operate their farms for ?????

W.P.A. and Japs Should Help Avert Nation's Farm Crisis

THE President asks Congress for a supplementary appropriation of $100,000,000 for the W. P. A. This, he believes, is needed to provide work and training for persons displaced from private employment as a result of the war program.

On the same day the President asked this appropriation, the Snohomish County Chamber of Commerce unanimously voted in favor of suspending all work on W. P. A. projects and diverting W. P. A. manpower to farm work. The chamber also urges that draft boards give careful consideration to the deferment of experienced farmers and farm hands, in order to maintain farm production in the necessary volume.

From all parts of the country come reports of shortage in farm help. Spring is here, and farm land must be cultivated and planted at once if to be productive this year. In our own neighborhood the situation is made more emergent by the pending evacuation of alien farmers and truck gardeners.

There are no more diligent tillers of the soil than the Japanese. If moved from where they are, they should be placed where they can be usefully employed at familiar tasks; and, of course, they should be adequately paid for their work.

By such means, as well as by diversion of W. P. A. labor from postponable projects to the farms, also to be fairly paid by those for whom they work, spring planting may be set under way and indispensable crops assured. Decisions must be quickly reached and acted upon without delay.

Jap Evacuation Blow to B. C. Lawns, Flowers

Special to The Times.

VANCOUVER, B. C., March 13. Owners of well-groomed lawns and gardens in the "expensive" district of Vancouver are torn between patriotism and despair today.

The little brown Jap, whose hands have been coaxing magic out of the soil these many years, is on his way to a work camp, or he will be, and when he goes ??? takes his place.

The Jap gardener has a system all his own. It calls for sub-rosa co-operation with other Jap gardeners up and down the street. They exchange their employers' tools on a reciprocal loan basis. They trade bulbs and cuttings and fertilizer and advice.

All this has been going on for years, countenanced by householders who realized that a Jap gardener can achieve startling results if left alone and permitted to follow his own methods.

There are a number of Chinese gardeners who can fill some of the posts now to be vacated by Japs, but not nearly enough.

Unless a miracle occurs, there is liable to be a sweeping back-to the-land movement by men who haven't touched a shovel or a hoe in years.

A SEATTLE school teacher, who teaches in a school whose enrollment includes some 500 Japanese, writes to say that she is just a little weary of bending over backward in her handling of the Japanese for fear of being classed as unfair or undemocratic. "Scholarships are hunted for the Japanese instead of for our own," she pointed out. She also brings up a good point in this paragraph:

"Our recent immigration law renders the Japanese undesirable. Then, by what miracle does the fact that one is born here make him a desirable citizen? America should look into this citizenship problem in the light of Fifth Column activity...

"Many American-born Japanese, in prose or poetry have expressed this feeling -- 'My heart lies buried in the Orient. My intelligence is here in America.' What kind of citizenship is that? Certainly not the kind I feel and my ancestors go back to the days of Governor Dimwiddie of Virginia." In postscript, the school teacher added that "we have just had a patriotic assembly with two Japanese talking on Lincoln and Wilson. My blood boiled."

Jap Girls Promoted, 80 Strike in B. C.

Special to the Times

VANCOUVER, B. C., March 13. -- Promotion of four Japanese girls to supervisory positions caused 80 employees of a biscuit company here to quit their jobs, union members report.

The workers who quit said they form the large majority of employees in the plant. They said conditions became intolerable since the promotion of four sisters some time ago. The workers also said several white girls were dismissed after signing of a union agreement with the company last October.

Japs Here Ask U.S. Aid On Property Problem By Fred Niendorff

Scores of Japanese, subject to evacuation, responded yesterday to the invitation of the Federal Reserve Bank to seek its help in settling their property problems preparatory to evacuation. Throughout the day they filed through the newly-opened Federal Reserve Bank office at 808 2nd Ave. Many were women, a goodly number were American citizens. Their problems varied and many presented complications.

Virtually all were there seeking Uncle Sam's help against potential losses that might result from the sudden leaving of their homes, their farms, hotels and business properties.


Meanwhile, in Olympia, Federal Reserve Bank officials, state officials and county agricultural agents were meeting at the invitation of Gov. Arthur B. Langlie to discuss economic effects of evacuation. particularly the effect on produce production in western Washington.

Attending the conferences were M. S. Szymczak, a governor of the Federal Reserve System, and Ward Stewart, treasury department aid, who arrived in Seattle yesterday morning after conferences in San Francisco with Lieut. Gen. J. L. deWitt, commander of the Western Defense Command.


Clarence Shaw, managing director of the Seattle Branch of the Federal Reserve Bank, who accompanied them to Seattle, also attended the Olympia conferences.

Szymczak addressed a gathering of Seattle bankers at a noon luncheon in the Rainier Club on evacuation aspects concerning the banks.

Opening of the property problem office at 808 2nd Ave. was designed chiefly to protect evacuees against unfair practices in the sale, lease, or disposal in any way of their property holdings, and to lend assistance in the sale or continued operation of the properties.

R. T. Symmes, assistant managing director, pulled one out of the hat yesterday that should check any tendency to take advantage of the emergency in which alien evacuees find themselves.

Pointing out that it is unlawful for a citizen to deal with an enemy alien, Symmes said that where cases of outright gouging are developed, the Federal Reserve Bank will move in and freeze the purchase -in other words, take over control of the property from the "smart" buyer.

Thus, making an overly profitable deal with an alien may develop serious disadvantages.

Symmes stressed that sentiment is not entering into the picture at all.


"The people evacuated will have to support themselves, or become a burden on the government," he said. "Hence it is our duty to see that they get all they have coming to them so that they may subsist on their own as long as possible."

Scores of Japanese merchants who want to sell their stocks cheaply as quickly as possible are being restrained for fear the state fair trade act may be invoked against them, thus further complicating their problem.

Symmes said his office has asked for legal advice as to whether Japanese intending to go out of business may put any price he wishes on his merchandise for a quick sale without running afoul of the law.

Among those seeking advice were Japanese merchants, farmers, hotel operators, garage and parking lot operators, homeowners, etc. Also seeking the bank's counsel were white American citizens who have leased or rented properties to Japanese. Most of them wanted to know how they could be protected against loss.


A Chinese related he had made tentative arrangements with a Japanese to buy the latter's grocery store for $1,500 -- and wanted to know if there was any legal objection to the deal.

A woman telephoned from Portland that she wanted to buy a grocery store -- cheap. A Japanese reported he had a grocery store to sell -- cheap.

An American with a big idea said he wanted to be named administrator for White River Valley farm lands. He had a plan to employ Filipino farm labor -- but no idea, when questioned, where he expected to obtain the labor.


Japanese who already have been evacuated from the Pacific Coast area and those who are to be evacuated received the first detailed information today on what will be expected of them at the resettlement camps to which they will be sent.

The War Relocation Authority announced it is planning different types of work opportunities for the 130,000 Japanese who will be removed from present homes, the Associated Press reported. They are:

1. -- Public works contributing to the war effort, such as development of land for irrigation.

2.-- Production of needed agriculture commodities for subsistence of the evacuees and for sale.

3. -- Manufacturing of articles such as camouflage nets, cartridge belts, wood products and other articles required by the military establishment.

4. --- Private employment, when and where possible.

No 'Private Pursuits'

The evacuees will not take part in private pursuits for several months, at least not until all have been removed from military areas, according to M. S. Eisenhower, director of the authority. Immediate work opportunities will be on large, supervised public projects.

"It is important," Eisenhower said, "that opportunities are made available for the Japanese to contribute the maximum to needed production."

The whole evacuation problem will be discussed with state and federal officials from ten western states at Salt Lake City Tuesday. At the present time only one large settlement center has been established. That is the one at Manzanar in Owens Valley, California, the one to which 237 Japanese from Bainbridge Island were sent. Others have been sent there from the Los Angeles area.

It was explained that assembly centers, such as that being built at the Puyallup Fair Grounds and that to be built at Longacres racetrack, will house the Japanese only until such time as they may be sent to resettlement projects. Some may be held only a day or two, others for as long as three months.

Eisenhower said the resettlement program obviously cannot be handled speedily enough on the basis of hundreds of individual requests for small assembly projects and so the Salt Lake conference was called to discuss a larger program.

In Tacoma today, S. S. Blackwell, assistant supervisor of the Farm Security Administration, said there is a possibility of a great influx of Filipino and Mexican labor to the Puyallup Valley and other Puget Sound farm regions as result of Japanese evacuation. He added that the great demand for such labor in California might be the only factor to halt such an immigration.

Blackwell also said the vegetable crop this year will be less than in former years and predicted higher prices this summer.

Registration Continues

Japanese continued to register in California today for removal. Registration date has not been set for the Puget Sound area but is expected to be soon.

Federal Bureau of Investigation agents last night arrested 22 alien Japanese in the San Pedro, Long Beach and Redondo Beach areas. These will be sent to concentration camps for the duration.

Another arrest was that of Miss Fumi Asazuma, 22 years old, a freshman art student at the University of California, who was taken into custody on the campus on a presidential warrant.


By Associated Press.

WASHINGTON, April 3. -- The 366 United States prisoners of war who were captured on Gilbert, Wake and Guam Islands by the Japanese and interned at Zentsuji, Island of Shikoku, are being well treated, the International Red Cross reported in a cablegram made public today by Representative White (Democrat, Idaho).

However, the men want more entertainment, fancier food and mail from the folks back home.

This was the most detailed account received through neutral sources to date on the welfare of men who fell into enemy hands.

Representative White was chosen to announce the report, presumably because many of the soldiers and civilians captured in the American outposts were residents of Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Civilians from these and other Western states were engaged in military construction work on the captured islands.

The cablegram, from an agent of the International Red Cross, was transmitted to the Navy Department here and then turned over to White. He made it public as follows:

"Have visited camp for prisoners of war at Zentsuji March 12, accompanied by aide from Information Bureau and the Japanese Red Cross. Camp on large Island of Shikoku in the north, near inland sea, on fertile plain between hills covered with pines; good climate; no endemical diseases.

"Market town of Zentsuji, with 25,000 inhabitants, nearby. Camp covers six acres, surrounded by barbed wire and a wooden fence. Two army barracks, two stories high, well ventilated, 12,000 cubic meters in all. Capacity, 500; present number, 374 -- 1 Englishman from Shanghai, 2 Dutchmen, 5 Australians and rest Americans, of whom 8 are from Gilbert Island, 20 from Wake and the rest from Guam. Forty-five officers, 10 doctors, 2 druggists, 1 dentist.

"Barracks recently divided into rooms of from one to 14 camp beds each having five blankets, a pillow and mattress for officers. Heating by modern stoves.

Young Men Losing Weight

"Daily rations 300 grams of bread, 300 rice, 160 wheat plus potatoes, sweet potatoes, green vegetables, fish, eggs, etc. Total 3,000 calories. Meat, sugared food and fruits are rather rare. Young and active prisoners are losing weight; old and idle prisoners gain weight.

"Cooks chosen from prisoners work in separate kitchens, which are large and clean.

"Tobacco ration is ten cigarettes per one to three days, according to rank.

"Clothing sufficient for the moment, but 120 pairs of shoes requested as soon as possible. Daily laundering; good hygiene; large hot Japanese bath daily for workers and weekly for others. Latrines clean and isolated.

"Infantry in barracks; military hospital nearby. Visits from Japanese doctors three times a week. Monthly inspection. Fifteen wounded in infirmary, of whom seven wounded by bombs and one had leg amputated above the knee. All getting along well. No dead. American dentist wants to practice. We will procure instruments for him.

Wish Books, Piano

"Prisoners wish book, equipment for sports and games, piano, typewriters. Protecting power will take charge of that.

"Religious services are conducted by a minister who is a1so a prisoner. Two hundred prisoners work voluntarily to clear nearby hill for potatoes, sweet potatoes, wheat. Satisfied with their work. Paid 60 to 90 yen a day, according to rank. Necessary work in camp paid 15 to 35 yen a day... Preparing to organize paid work in the town. Officers receive same pay as that of corresponding rank in the Japanese army...

"Principal need is that of corresponding with families. Letters not sent in view of lack of communications. At beginning of March officers authorized to send personal messages to their families in America by radio, but remain without any answer.

"Prisoners wish to receive financial assistance by cable from their families through the intermediary of the United States Navy Department or the Red Cross. Have already asked by radio for packages of preserves, meat, fruits, sweets, American tobacco.

"No complaint on subject of treatment, discipline and cooperation are excellent. Commanding officer and officers competent and friendly. Prisoners sensible. General impression very good."

Hongkong Internees Reported Starving

LONDON, April 3 -- (AP) -- Dr. Gordon King, who has just escaped from Hongkong and reached Chungking, was quoted by Reuters, British news agency, yesterday as declaring half the 1,600 Britons and 300 Americans interned in Hongkong's Stanley prison were in danger of death by starvation within six months.

Dr. King, a physician and former professor in Hongkong University, said the Japanese had refused requests by an Italian bishop, the Swedish consul and others for better treatment of the prisoners, scores of whom already looked like skeletons. Many of the prisoners are children or old persons.


Two little girls of Oriental extraction who habitually wear "China" buttons and in whose home a "China" poster is displayed, will be evacuated from Seattle with their mother and separated from their father when the Army finally removes all Japanese from the Seattle area, it became known today.

Tile reason for this unusual situation is that the girls are children of a Chinese father and a Japanese mother.

The girls are Hazel Woo, 8 years old, and Grace Woo, 5, who are daughters of Lun P. Woo, alien born Chinese, and Nellie Woo, an American-born Japanese. The family lives at 328 25th Ave.

Woo, who has adopted the American custom of using his family name last, is a merchant. Mrs. Woo, who was educated at the Central Elementary School, Broadway High School and the University of Washington, was an honor student both in high school and the University.

Mrs. Woo recently appealed to the Western Command in San Francisco, asking if an exception could be made in her case. The answer was that no exception could be made. The Army did not say whether she must take her children but other federal authorities say it will be the policy for children to accompany the mother in such cases.

Mrs. Woo is hopeful that arrangements can be made, after evacuation from Seattle, for her husband to join her at some inland point.

Army Watching Japs On Bainbridge Island

SAN FRANCISCO, March 24. -- First large scale shift of Japanese brought 800 to Manzanar, Calif., (1) and nearly 10,000 more from Los Angeles area will be housed there within six weeks. Japanese ordered from Bainbridge Island, near Bremerton Navy Yard (2) will also go there. New army ruling yesterday set up curfew for enemy aliens and Japanese-Americans in Coast states, Montana, Idaho, Utah and Arizona. Shading indicates areas restricted and prohibited. -- (Associated Press Wirephoto.)

Japs Will Settle Near Wenatchee

WENATCHEE, March 31. -- (AP)-- Norman Cedergreen, Wenatchee produce man who developed a frozen package process bearing his name, said today a number of Japanese Amerlcans would work for his company after evacuation from the Coast.

The group, he did not say how many, will settle at Quincy, thirty five miles southwest of here, and will grow produce for the Cedergreen Company, he explained.

Cedergreen said the government ??? approved the settlement of the group, which formerly lived at Woodinville.


Labor Problem Serious Threat To N. W. Crops

Post-Intelligencer Financial Editor

In their attempt to meet increased production goals set by the agriculture war boards, farmers of the Pacific Northwest states are running smack into a serious labor problem.

They are, nevertheless, making a patriotic all-out effort to provide maximum output.

W. P. Stapleton, Northern Pacific Western agricultural development agent, who has been keeping in close touch with the farm production situation, says that "very careful attention is being given to the farm labor problem by the United States Employment Service, and all other government agencies are cooperating."


Each of the three most important farm products in Washington -wheat, apples and milk -- appears promising at this time, he said. He reports no winter injury to the wheat crop; good sales prospects for apples and no indication of winter damage, and a healthy situation for milk production.

Goals set by the agriculture war boards (based on war, lend-lease and civilian requirements) call for largest production increases in fresh vegetables and vegetables for processing.

Washington farmers alone are asked to produce 71 per cent more dry edible peas than they did last year; 9 per cent more milk; 13 per cent more eggs, 10 per cent more vegetables for the fresh market and 21 per cent more for processing. They are asked to more than double last year's production of tomatoes for processing.


Japanese growers have been heavy contributors to the total Western Washington vegetable production in the past, and the extent to which their lands contribute this year depends upon when they are to be evacuated and to what extent labor will be found to help in the harvest.

A pressing problem of the Farm Security Administration at the moment is the salvaging of the Bainbridge Island strawberry crop now growing on the lands of Japanese who must evacuate by March 30.

Without much fanfare Bainbridge Island in the past decade has developed into one of the heaviest producers of strawberries in the state of Washington.

Of a total state crop of 29,088,000 pounds in 1941, it is estimated Bainbridge Island produced more than five million pounds, or almost one-sixth of the entire state production.


Those close to the strawberry situation on Bainbridge Island assert that the Japanese growers, despite the threat of evacuation hanging over them, have continued with their work and that if their farms are taken care of and labor provided to harvest the crop, the island should produce close to 90 per cent of the 1940 output. The big problem, of course, is finding sufficient labor.

The Farm Security Administration has its representatives right on the ground. Among other objectives is the hastening of voluntary sales or agreements between evacuee owners and persons interested in carrying on where the Japanese leave off.

Federal Reserve Bank officials here say that since the evacuation order directed at the Bainbridge Island Japanese was announced, there has been a greater disposition among Japanese everywhere including those on Bainbridge Island, to sell or lease their lands, or otherwise make arrangements for the care of their properties.


Realization that evacuation is a reality, not merely a threat, has given impetus to the transfer movement in properties of every description, including hotels, apartment houses, homes and business properties.

It would seem inevitable, however, that a substantial percentage of Japanese-owned properties eventually will qualify for administration by officially designated alien property custodians.

The market simply cannot absorb all that the Japanese would have to offer, even if all wanted to sell, without repercussions.

This is something that the Japanese themselves might well bear in mind. They hardly can expect "going prices" under forced sale conditions -- particularly when offerings ran into greater volume than can be easily absorbed.


Keeping Japanese Lands Producing Offers Problem

Post-Intelligencer Financial Editor

Regardless of when alien end American-born Japanese farmers are evacuated from their lands, "keeping Japanese lands in production is a basic war measure."

This notice has been served on all district officers and field agents of the wartime farm adjustment program by Laurence L. Hewes Jr., regional director at the Farm Security Administration.

It touches on one of the most vital problems facing not only the Pacific Coast, but the entire war program as it relates to the nation's Food for Freedom campaign.


As pointed out by Hewes in his detailed instructions:

"The primary object of the wartime farm adjustment program will be to see that these evacuated lands continue in full production. This is a matter of the greatest importance to the nation and to our war effort. Japanese now produce from 35 to 50 per cent of the vegetables grown in California, and California production in many crops constitutes from a third to two thirds of the nation's vegetable production."

To which he adds:

"Since increased production under the Food for Freedom program is of vital importance to our military effort -- affecting not only supplies for our army but supplies being sent to Britain and Russia -- keeping the Japanese lands in production is a basic war measure."


There can be no question about the validity of this line of reasoning, yet keeping the Japanese controlled farm lands in continued production in western Washington, and, most likely, elsewhere, is a problem of considerably greater magnitude than might appear to some of the numerous arm-chair strategists and superficial critics who have been raising their voices for "action."

The cold, sad fact -- as any government official who has been dealing with the problem will tell you -- is that the white American farmer is not interested in taking over on the Jap lands where the Japs leave off, simply because truck gardening is not his business, and the average Japanese truck garden is not large enough to accommodate his type of term operation.

Many a Japanese truck garden operator is willing, in fact anxious, to sell out in anticipation of evacuation -- but there is a great dearth of offers to buy. Some of these lands may be had at bargain prices and unless they are bought up they will find their way into ultimate government custody and trusteeship, and, possibly, out of production. In any event they will not be producing the type of crops they have produced.


As previously pointed out here a government official in close touch with the problem has hazarded the opinion that possibly three-fourths of the currently Japanese-operated truck and berry lands ultimately will be sown to feed crops, i. e., hay, grain, etc.

Hewes points out that in seeking a practical solution to the problem his office is working closely with the army and the Federal Reserve Bank.

In fact, an Associated Press dispatch from San Francisco yesterday states the army has set up a special board (referring to the same agencies) "with the object of continuing full production of the truck gardens of Japanese farmers producing more than a sixth of the nation's vegetables."

Actually, the program, according to Hewes, will operate under the authority of, with funds supplied by, the Western Defense Command and the Fourth Army. Thus it is made clear that rather than the civil agencies striking out on their own, they are working in full cooperation with the army command in a concerted effort on a unified program which has for its objectives a mass evacuation of enemy aliens and American-born Japanese with the least damage to the military food requirements of the United Nations.


Such a concerted program also has the merit of placing the army in full control of the "how" and "when" of evacuation, with military considerations always uppermost and in the hands of those most competent to judge precisely what those considerations are.

Thus the information given out unofficially in official quarters that the order of evacuation of Japanese may be to remove those engaged in business and commerce first, and those producing crops, last, would appear to make sense.

Meanwhile, anybody who knows of anybody who would like to buy Japanese farm land will be helping the country by referring them to the Federal Reserve Bank's evacuee property problem office at 808 2nd Ave. Buyers are wanted -now.

Japanese in Valley

To the Post- Intelligencer:

There is a problem facing our local citizens which must be solved sanely and courageously. What is the best solution for controlling the Japanese population living in our community?

First of all, if removal is dictated by military necessity, then, of course, nothing more should be said. However, if it is a matter of politics or general public clamor, then I believe that there is something to be said in favor of keeping the Japanese here at work for us.

In this agricultural area, there are some 175 Japanese families farming approximately 3,000 acres of valley land. If mass evacuation is carried out as suggested, it is not likely that it could be completed in time to permit the re-organization of the farming area for this crop year.

I have lived in the valley for many years, and I believe the Japanese can be controlled right here.

It would seem to me that an agricultural area could be set up embracing the Puyallup Valley from Orting to Fife, and the Japanese could be restricted to this area. A few guards could easily and effectively patrol the area. However, after this season's crops are harvested, if the authorities determine that the Japanese should be removed, then this could be accomplished without difficulty or hardship to either the Japanese or ourselves.

HENRY BALL, Puyallup.

Against Sentimentality

To The Post-lntelligencer:

This is war. Stop being sentimental as to the Germans, Italians and Japs. There has been too much hush hush about the evacuation of enemy aliens, including the native born, from the vital area of the Pacific Coast. In my opinion both the army and the Federal Bureau of Investigation know what they are doing.

The Germans, Italians and Japs are putting every alien in the concentration camps in their respective countries. Look what Hitler did to the Polish people, many executed by firing squad, including noncombatants. Look what the Japs are doing to the people of my country, Manila. They kill those who refuse to give information and aid they wish to obtain. Look what the Japs did in Nanking in 1937. And look what the Japs did in Hongkong to the British.

I believe in the freedom of speech, freedom of the press, but I certainly do not believe in too much hush hush and sentimentality about our enemy aliens, including their native sons and daughters. Let the authorities take them where they belong. Stop worrying about hurting German, Italian and Jap feelings.


Japanese Grown Produce Figures

A heading on this page yesterday stated "70 million pounds of produce grown by N. W. Japanese." This figure applied only to Japanese produce and berries for processing in Washington and Oregon. It is estimated that Japanese supplies grown in these two states for the fresh markets would equal the volume going into canning and processing.


1,000 From L. A. to Be First To Quit Military Area No. 1;
They'll Pioneer at Manzanar

SAN FRANCISCO, March 18. --(AP)-- Evacuation of all Japanese aliens and American-born alike, will start early next week from the strip of coast designated as Military Area No. 1, the army announced tonight. The first to leave will be 1,000 Japanese from the Los Angeles area, who volunteered to pioneer in setting up community life at Manzanar reception center in the Owens Valley east of the rugged Sierra Nevada Range.

"While the 1,000 leaving next week are cooperating and have volunteered to be the first to go, evacuation from the critical areas will continue," said Lieut. Gen. J. L. De Witt, head of the Western Defense Command.


"I encourage and urge the continuation of such movements as the Owens Valley group has started. However, I desire to make it unmistakably clear that evacuation will be continued with or without such cooperation."

Military Area No. 1 includes the western half of the states of Washington, Oregon and California and the southern part of Arizona. This strip has been described by the army as "particularly subject to attack, to attempted invasion, and is subject to espionage and acts of sabotage."

Construction is under way at the Owens Valley center and next week it will be prepared to handle 1,000 aliens, De Witt's announcement said. Later some 10,000 can be accommodated.

The first 1,000 Japanese entering the section will go by their own automobiles and in buses and trains. De Witt said the army would provide escorts for convoys, but pointed out the migration would not be under guard.

These first arrivals will establish social centers, arrange agricultural work, recreational activities, hospitals and schools. "With such cooperation, those affected will find their situation much less difficult," De Witt said in reference to the first volunteers.

"Those who do not take advantage of the current time to prepare themselves for the coming move, those who do not take every advantage of facilities of the sixty-four offices that the Wartime Civil Control Administration has opened through the Pacific states to settle their affairs, may suddenly find themselves confronted with the necessity of abandoning their property.

"We are endeavoring to provide this service to avoid forced sales and prevent unscrupulous people from taking undue advantage. But if the affected groups fail to take advantage, their lot will be harder."


The Seattle Japanese colony is making plans to migrate en masse to Eastern Washington and establish a permanent community, James Y. Sakamoto, Japanese publisher and leader, announced today. Although the evacuation of all Japanese, aliens and American-born alike, is expected to be ordered soon, few Japanese have left Seattle voluntarily thus far because they are awaiting for approval by the government of the establishment of the community. Sakamoto declined to reveal the locality of the possible community, but he said it was outside of an area where white Persons are settled.

Model City Planned

"If the government will assist us somewhat," Sakamoto said, "we can put up temporary quarters quickly, then move and build a permanent model city with homes, churches schools and industries. Many of us would go with the view to staying there permanently.

"We are willing to put ourselves in voluntary exile," he continued, "but we will need some assistance from the government."

Sakamoto said the proposal has been placed before government authorities, but no action has been taken.

Meanwhile, 1,000 Japanese from the Los Angeles area have volunteered to pioneer in setting up community life at Manzanar, 40 miles south of Bishop in the Owens Valley of Southeastern California, east of the rugged Sierra Nevadas, the Associated Press reported.

In Owens Valley the Japanese will live in fabricated houses, with community kitchens and community baths, will engage chiefly in agricultural work. The camp eventually will accommodate 10,000 evacuees.

General De Witt Approves

Such a community would accommodate Seattle's entire Japanese community, made up of about 4,000 aliens and 6,000 American-born persons.

Lieut. Gen. John L. De Witt, commander of the Western Defense Command, has approved such movements. Urging other Japanese to follow the example of the Los Angeles volunteers, General De Witt said:

"I desire to make it unmistakably clear that evacuation will be continued, with or without such cooperation. With such cooperation, those affected will find their situation much less difficult."

The Army's part in the evacuation program will end when Military Area No. 1, a 2,000-mile-long strategic strip of coastline, is cleared.

A war relocation authority, created yesterday by President Roosevelt, with Milton S. Eisenhower in charge, will then take over, providing permanent resettlement areas and employment opportunities when possible.

"Remember Pearl Harbor" Sheet Music

Classified Ads

The following going business establishments are for sale at a sacrifice in a district filled with shipyards, aircraft, and other workers. Full information can be obtained from the Japanese owners at the respective addresses:

Dry goods, 605 Jackson St.
Restaurant, 518 Jackson St.
Furniture and Hardware, 625 Jackson.
Meat and Fish Market, 658 Jackson.
Drug Store, 523 Jackson.
Shoe Store, 650 Jackson.
Grocer and 11 rooms, 415 6th S.
Men's Furnishings, 615 Jackson.
Shoe Repair Shop, 411 Maynard Ave.
Barber Shop, 623 Jackson.
Fruit Stand, 1301 Jackson.
Meat Market, 1327 Yesler Way.
Grocery, 1325 Yesler Way.
Lunch Counter, 419 6th S.
Poultry and Groceries, 1311 Jackson.
Jewels and Watch Making, 516 Jackson.
Dyeing and cleaning, 412 6th S.
Tavern, 514 Jackson.
Hotel, 46 rooms, 613 Jackson.
Hotel, 48 rooms, 507 King St.
Lunch Counter, 408 5th S.
Grocery, 658 Jackson.
Men's Furnishings, 601 Jackson.
Grocery and 9 rooms, 1211 Jackson.
Pool room and confectionery, 613 Jackson.

National manufacturer wants reliable party in each city to handle chain of
New 2-in-1 Vendors
Profits over 100%. Each machine on good location with our new stimulation plan should net $2 to $3 weekly. Permanent, profitable and highly successful. Requires $265 to $700 cash to start. Profits reinvested will build $200 net weekly income. Locations furnished. Write 943-20 Times.

?? rooms in very good South End location. Building now being completely reconditioned. Bargain price on furniture. See Mr. Zimmerman.
White & Bollard Realty, Inc. 1222 2nd Ave. MA. 4711.

ROOMS, brick veneer, full cement basement house and 5 greenhouses, located in south end of city; for sale or lease. Will lease house and greenhouses separately. Tomatoes and flowers in greenhouse. Call RAinier 7410 between 8-9 p.m. for terms and information.

EVACUATION store. Excellent location, grocery, flowers, vegetables. Long established business. Large living quarters, bath. Gladly teach inexperienced people. Prefer cash. 428 Broadway North.

MODERN beauty and barber shop, apartment house district near downtown, 3 booths, large space, new equipment and furniture; living quarters. Cheap rent. AValon 0312.

ROOMING house 27 rooms, First Hill, netting $300 per month. Total price $2,750. Low rent and a lease. Mr. Webster, MAin 9141.

REMEMBER -- His whispering praises Re beautiful skin, lovely hands -- Hot water -- Steam -Tubs -- Blooey -- a dream -- a nightmare. EL. 4700. Saves all. New Richmond Laundry.

Hotel, apts., restaurant, dye works, barber shop. Fujitomi, 517 Jackson St.

BEAUTY SHOP -- Booths fully equipped. 3 driers, perm. wave mach. Chrome fixtures, shampoo bowls, etc. Very modern. Must sell. Stands investigation. Bargain. 2000-3rd Ave.

HOW MUCH Money can you make for yourself on a going annual restaurant business of $60,000. Excellent district. Price to sell on 30 months net earnings to present owner. M. Ross Downs MAin 8810.

FT, notion shop and lending library. Attractive store in good neighborhood. Owner starting business own building another district; $1,000 cash. Write 183-40 Times.

EVACUATING -- Rent, sell or lease old established cleaning business. Plenty work. O. K. Cherry Cleaners, 2918 East Cherry. EAst 1076, PRospect 2341.

Once in a lifetime opportunity in a natural proven shopping center in Seattle. We have 100% location for Junior Department drygoods store. We will aid in selection of stock and fixtures and provide chain store merchandise and operating program. This proposition will stand rigid investigation. The world's largest distributor will supply full help and information. Do not reply unless you have $12,000 minimum for investment in lifelong independence. Write 159-54 Times.

SACRIFICE -- $10,500 50 acres, with 5-mile of waterfront on Olympic highway and Hood Canal. Has fully equipped inn and a number of good cottages. A money-maker for good operator. Owner retiring account of illness. Will consider free and clear house or duplex as part payment.
C. O. WALSTON 708 Joshua Green Bldg., EL. 7293.


Grocery stores, parking lots, garages, printing establishments, delicatessen and other business opportunities. See Mr. Best, SE. 2161. 212 Lloyd Bldg.

Industrialists, Attention!
Fully equipped foundry for sale. Building, equipment, supplies. Well-located, trackage. See Mr. Zimmerman White & Bollard Realty, Inc. 1222 2nd Ave. MA. 4711.

TAVERN AND CAFE NORTH END. Direct draw. Good fixtures; $75 a day up. Husband in service; business too much for wife to handle. Will give good lease at $50 a month. Price just cut from $6,000 to $4,500. Robinson, 428 Vance Bld. MA. 8078.

NEW YORK executive, good financial condition, hit by priorities, seeking representation of reliable enterprise. Selling or buying. Advertising Bureau of America. 220 W. 42nd, New York.

SMALL South End restaurant for sale. Will sacrifice. Tenant must evacuate. 16 stools. Mr. Darnell. John Davis & Co., 807 2nd Ave. MAin 9141.

OFFERS LEASE and FURNITURE in OUTSTANDING Seattle downtown hotel. Mr. Best, SE. 2161. 212 Lloyd Bldg.

FAST selling product. This is no petty sales proposition. The reputation of one of America's largest corporations is back of it. $2,000 required. Write 102-79 Times.

MODERNISTIC beauty and barber shop. Fine residential district. Excellent business, established many years. Illness forces sacrifice. Write 151-20 Times.

FOR SALE by owner, small grocery, suitable married couple or two women. Stock at inventory. Books open for inspection. 1723 12th South. Call Monday or later.

HAVE large listing of Japanese hotels and apartments at sacrifice prices and on terms. Some can be sub-leased. Robinson, 428 Vance Bld. MA. 8078.

GROCERY, meat market equipped; located where there are 43 apartment houses within 3 blocks; Japanese evacuates. Call evenings, CApitol 1473.

THREE cabins, store buildings, small house, lot corner 50x102, income $90 per month. Price $4,800. $2,000 cash. 14002 Aurora, Owner.

DO you want an income of $200 per mo? Steady work with small investment. Call Sat., Sunday or after 5 week days. 911 James, Apt. 4.

Established corner, classy stock, living quarters. It's a bargain. Mr. Woolley, 3325 Beacon Ave.

OPPORTUNITY for inactive partner with $1,000. Business of national importance, enormous possibilities. Write 938-44 Times.

GROCERY, good location, steady trade, $1,200. Living quarters in rear, 7 rooms, rent $35. SEneca 9399.

GROCERY -- Complete stock and fixtures, or sell fixtures separately, bargain. Quick. 2700 E. Union.

On beautiful river and main E. & W. Highway. Over 30 bldgs. and 11-acre park. Equipped and completely furnished. Cafe and gas stn. Estab. 20 years. Illness of owner reason for selling. Close to population and easy to reach. Should get big play next few years. Ideal set-up for family to handle. Price, $15,000. Terms. Wesner Realty Co., Agts., KE. 5322; evenings, ME. 0755. 6105 Roosevelt Way, Seattle.

BREMERTON -- Groc. or meat. Established business. Doing 85% cash. Excel. location. On main thoroughfare. Free parking. Other interests. Write 924-32 Times.

DENTAL office. 2 chairs and laboratory, fully equipped, ground floor corner. 15-year established practice, heart suburban business center. Dentist recently deceased. See by appointment. GLendale 5865.

COUNTY beer tavern license available; forced to move; have two new hot spots in mind; need partner with capital or will sell license and equipment outright. Write 184-04 Times.

SACRIFICE bakery with complete equipment including high-speed mixer and 1937 Chevrolet truck; living quarters above, 8 rooms. Must sell immediately. 1040 Jackson. PRospect 5628.

BRICK CORNER HOTEL Sacrifice immediately, 86 well-furnished rooms; rent only $175; excellent location, elegant furniture: income more than $1,000. Alki Hotel, 5th and Washington.

HALF interest chicken business, $450. Battery brooder, capacity 500 fryers weekly. Profits divided monthly. Earl Anderson, General Delivery.

SACRIFICE for immediate sale, well equipped press shop by white citizen. EAst 8227.

BEAUTY shop, new equipment; make offer: University district. MElrose 8111.

DUCK pin bowling alley, complete equipment, 3 alleys, movable, $750. MAin 8762.

CLEANER -- Evacuating. Best offer accepted. 7915 W. Green Lake Way. KEnwood 0459.

MUST SELL AT ONCE! Printing plant, 4540 6th Avenue, Tacoma.

ICE CREAMERY, library, lunches; residential spot. Sacrifice. Evacuee. 1721 12th.

34 H. K. rooms, $2,200, oil heat; Japanese sacrifice. 2000-3rd Ave.

GROCERY -- Evacuating; apartment district; established trade; meat market next door. Beer license, business good. 606 E. Denny Way. CApitol 9741.

WHY WORK for wages. 42 housekeeping rooms, clears $250 and apartment. Lady operates it. $2,300. $1,000 down, balance easy. Write 156-88 Times.

OWNER going to hospital. Sacrifice cafe doing good business. Living quarters. Pin ball machines pay overhead. $500 cash: SHeridan 9018.

CLEANING Business. Complete with fine equipment, large stock of supplies, men's and women's used suits and hats. Bargain. 412 Sixth S. ELliott 8298.

MILK route in Bremerton. Must sell immediately. 450-quart route, late '41 International Truck. Call at Guernsey Dairy, Port Orchard.

Greenwood district, excellent opportunity. HEmlock 3653 or SUnset 9668.

GROCERY -- Corner, good steady business, full stock, beer license. Reasonable rent. Owner, ME. 9648.

HAND laundry, excellent location; very good business; reasonable. Phone Bidway 4017, 732 Market St., Tacoma.

STEWART'S CAFE, Enumclaw, Wash., for sale or rent; P. R. Lewis, 1125 Griffen Ave., Enumclaw, Wash.

EVACUEES -- Dressmaking, cleaning shop, completely equipped. Rent $25. Living quarters. 2016 Second.

PARKING LOT. 120x120, downtown, good business. Owner very old, must sell $550, including lease deposit. GRant 2886.

EXCLUSIVE millinery stock and fixtures, downtown location; established 30 years; Write 103-04 Times.

For Safe & Lucrative Business
Opportunities, see Mr. Best,. SE. 2161. 212 Lloyd Bldg.

CIGAR stand, large office building. Pin ball pays rent. $495. Owner, PRospect 4959.

ESTABLISHED sewing room in beauty shop. Customers waiting. MAin 9786.

TAVERN, some food: $60 day. $2,800, $1,500 down. Owner going in Army. Real buy. 2000-3rd Ave.

BEAUTY salon, well established. 3year lease. Top prices. KEnwood 6151.

Cash grocery; $1,500. Japanese sale, $2,000 worth of fixtures; 4 living rms.; lease. $75 daily. 2000-3rd Ave.

ICE cream and coffee shop. Best district and location. Write 18350 Times.

DRY cleaning establishment. Good following. Good location. $900. 1209 Madison.

Japanese grocery sacrifice; $70$100 day; $2,200 full price; busy apt. center; bargain. 2000-3rd Ave.

CLEANING establishment; living quarters; fine residential district. 1711 N. 45th.

SCHOOL store, groceries; rent $20. 3 liv. rms., bath. $700 full price. No competition. 2000-3rd Ave.

CLEANING and tailor shop, cheap. Must sell. 6403 32nd N. W.

BRICK hotel bld., sub. town, $6,500. M. B. JACKSON. Empire Bldg.

EVACUEE must sell cleaning and pressing shop; good location, hatblocking equipment, living quarters. 2011 Westlake.

14-ROOM house furnished with income; walking distance, reasonable; by owner; no agents. Write 100-35 Times.

DYE WORKS, well equipped; wonderful business. Excellent upstairs living quarters. 2407 Jackson St.

BARBER shop, 1 chair, established 15 years; sell or rent. 7627 Rainier Ave. KEnwood 1108.

WANT contractor for 12 complete F. H. A. houses, Bremerton. 600 National Bldg., 1008 Western Ave.

BAKERY -- drafted. Good retail business. Complete equipment. Sell reasonably. Green Lake Bakery. KEnwood 9843.

DRY CLEANING-TAILORING establishment, best residential district; high turnover, 418 Broadway N., PRospect 6900.

GROCERY and meat market, ideal location; beer,; wine license. Sacrifice for quick sale. Good fixtures. 811 14th Ave.

GROCERY STORE -- Well established. Modern equipment, complete stock. 1405 West 70th.

FOR sale or lease. Modern equipped restaurant. 103 Wash. St. Good opportunity. Hurry!

HIGH SCHOOL lunch, $1,450. $650 down. 2 living rooms. 2000-3rd Ave.

HAVE large and small furnished hotels for lease on reasonable terms. Write 181-18 Times.

Must sell immediately. Very reasonable. MElrose 2033.

GROCERY-TAVERN -- A real buy; let us show You. $3,500 handles this. Write 176-00 Times.

ESTABLISHED antique business for sale, reasonable. 4143 University Way, Seattle.

INDUSTRIAL district cafe, location and equipment. Cheap. 716 6th South.

CLEANERS, fully equipped, sacrifice, living quarters, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., 1015 E. Pike. CA. 9653.

CLEANING and pressing; excellent corner, living quarters. 4405 Rainier Ave.

RESTAURANT -- Business center, low rent, good business. State Cafe. 1009 1st Ave.

LAUNDRY and dye works; fully equipped. Evacuee must lease immediately. 307 Maynard Ave.


HOTEL, apts., rooming houses. Leases. Robinson. 428 Vance Bldg.

8 CABINS at Soap Lake, 1 block from beach. ELliott 8867.

RESTAURANT -- Beer, wine license. 304 6th Ave. South.-

72 room hotel. Japanese sacrifice $2,750. Inquire 2000-3rd Ave.

AMELIA barber shop for sale. 1704 Yesler Way. Must sell.

LUNCH; $350 down, $30-$40 day; steady working trade. 2000-3rd Ave.

DRUG STORE -- Very good location. Established 25 years. 523 Jackson.

Japanese hotel, 50 rooms, lease; $1,000-1,300 gross mo. 2000-3rd Ave.


Diplomas for Nisei At Special Ceremonies

Jap Pupils in Valley Schools, Soon to Enter
Assembly Center, Get Best Wishes of Classmates

Valley high schools are holding special exercises this week to give diplomas and send-offs to their Japanese students who are leaving Thursday.

At Sumner it had been planned to have a program Friday, hut this has been moved up and the 12 seniors will be given their diplomas at a special assembly Wednesday. There are 30 Japanese pupils in the high school and about 40 in the grades.

At Puyallup an assembly will be held Wednesday when the students and teachers will wish the departing pupils well. There are 20 in the high school out of between 1,100 and 1,200 pupils, five of them seniors.

The school has requested that the five seniors be allowed to return to Puyallup for graduation exercises, according to Paul Hanawalt, principal.

There is but one Japanese graduate at Eatonville high this year and he has already left the school. He will receive his diploma by mail.

Drop in Birth Rate

There Is a marked drop in the birth rate among the valley Japanese, according to Wade Calavan, principal of the Sumner schools. At one time the Japanese numbered 25 per cent of the Sumner school enrollment. The original Japanese have grown beyond the age of having children and the Nisei have shown no inclination to have any great number of babies. As a result, nearly half of the Japanese in the Sumner schools are in the high school.

Diplomas were presented to 20 Japanese seniors of Fife high school in a special "commencement" program Tuesday afternoon. Supt. R. H. Hall explained diplomas were given to all seniors affected by the evacuation order whose grades were satisfactory as of this date. These include two student body officers, Vice President Kenji Yaguchi, who has been state high school wrestling champion three out of the past four years, and Treasurer Yukio Kubo, a four year letter winner in girls' athletics.

100 Japs at Fife

The Fife schools have an enrollment of approximately 660, about evenly divided between the high and grade school. Evacuation will take approximately 70 Japanese from the high school.and 30 from the grades, and this loss in attendance will cost the district around $8,000 from its state receipts next year, Hall estimated.

Fife's Japanese students have been especially active in athletics and the school's traditional power in the Pierce County league will be severely tested in the coming year through the loss of many regulars. Seven of the 11 "first string" men on Coach Bill Vinson's baseball team this spring were Japanese.

188 Japanese In Tacoma Schools

No special ceremonies have been planned at the Tacoma high schools for Japanese senior students.

There are 188 Japanese students in the Tacoma city schools, 74 in the high schools, 57 in the junior high schools and 57 in grade schools. In the high schools are 23 at Lincoln, including nine seniors, and 51 at Stadium, including 12 seniors. Of the grade schools 52 are at the Central school. There is a marked falling off in registration of Japanese pupils in the Tacoma schools as well as in the valley, according to Monte J. Downing, assistant superintendent, who recalls that there were more than 150 Japanese pupils in the... [article abruptly ends here]


Mushrooming within a few days is this giant building project on the 19-acre parking lot across from the Western Washington Fair Grounds at Puyallup, where 8,000 Japanese will be housed pending transfer to permanent evacuation centers. This photograph gives an idea of the general scene. The buildings in the foreground are nearly completed, while others beyond them are in various stages of construction under a lightning-construction program.


Longacres racetrack was chosen as a second Washington evacuation center yesterday by Lieut. Gen. John L. De Witt, commanding general of the Western Defense command and Fourth Army, to augment the automobile parking lot at the Western Washington Fair Grounds in Puyallup. It was not known how long the track will be used or if it will interfere with the racing season, scheduled to open June 27.

It was the first official Army announcement that either site had been chosen, although it was known generally that the center was under construction in Puyallup and it was expected that another would be started some place in the valley south of Seattle. Joseph Gottstein, proprietor and majority stockholder in the track, said he had received no official notification of the track's selection from the Army. He said until newspapers telephoned him he had been continuing plans for the 1942 racing season, which would run through the summer to Labor Day.

'War Comes First'

"It's a lot more important to win a war than run horses," Gottstein said. "I wouldn't want the races to cause injury to a single boy fighting in the Philippines. Compared with the war, horse racing doesn't amount to anything. "I can't help being disappointed if there is to be no season. I've spent quite a little money improving the grounds and getting ready to open.

"But I don't think that's important. Anything they do is fine as far as I'm concerned." Gottstein said there is a possibility the Japanese will be removed in time for racing.

"If it is and if the track can be made useable in time, the racing season will go on as scheduled," Gottstein added. "We've set up the whole program, including three charity days -- for the Red Cross July 9, the Navy Relief July 30 and the Army Relief August 20. But if the Army's still using it, we'll abandon our plans."

Neither the racetrack nor fairgrounds will be permanent quarters for evacuated Japanese, but will be used as temporary reception centers where the evacuees can remain until removal to permanent, resettlements.

Capacity Estimated

The extent of each site's capacity was not announced, but together they are expected to handle all of Washington's 9,000 Japanese. Official announcement of the two Washington sites was included in a statement naming four other centers, two in Arizona and one each in Oregon and California, the Associated Press said.

The Oregon site will be on the Pacific International Exposition Grounds near Portland, to accommodate about 3,000 persons. The Salinas Rodeo Grounds, to accommodate a similar number, was chosen in California.

In Arizona, the Army chose two former Civilian Conservation Corps camps, each caring for about 300 persons.

Owing to war evacuation, which has reduced its population by about 3,000,000, London no longer is the world's largest city. It now ranks after New York and Tokyo.


The Tolan congressional committee, after hearing wide differences of opinion during two days in Seattle on the subject of alien and American-Japanese evacuation today was en route to Los Angeles for a similar session.

Congressman John H. Tolan, California, chairman of the committee, left the city hurriedly yesterday before the afternoon closing session, hut Congressmen Carl T. Curtis, Nebraska; Laurence F. Arnold, Illinois, and George H. Bender, Ohio, remained to hear final witnesses urge caution, demand immediate and widespread action, and voice other degrees of opinion.

Steiner Urges Caution

Prof. J. F. Steiner of the University of Washington department of sociology, said he believes there is no need for wasteful haste in deciding upon evacuation.

"No need for haste!" Arnold interjected. "Suppose a Japanese aircraft carrier should approach within 200 miles of the Pacific Coast today and send bombers in to destroy Seattle industrial plants? Do you think that would affect the civilian population?"

"It could be only a sporadic raid---" Steiner began.

"Do you mean sporadic like Pearl Harbor?" asked Arnold.

"I would hope we are better prepared than that," Steiner returned.

"We can't afford to take chances," said Arnold.

Steiner said he believes "we have a mistaken idea about the cohesion of the Japanese."

"I believe the American-Japanese feel just as I do, and I know would certainly inform the F. B. I. about any American I knew to be engaged in subversive activity," Steiner said.

Few Cases Reported Here

"Would you be surprised if I told you that the F. B. I. head here in Seattle told me that only one or two cases had been reported to him by Japanese?" Arnold asked.

"Yes, I would," Steiner answered.

"Well, that is the case," said Arnold.

"I feel the prejudice in Washington is much less than in California and that prior to the trouble in the Pacific, they were considered an asset," Steiner said.

"I think both the first and second generation Japanese would accede willingly to any evacuation order. It might embitter them a little, but they'd not resist it."

The Rev. Harold V. Jensen, representing the Seattle Council of Churches, said he believes Japanese aliens are being discriminated against as compared with German and Italian aliens.

Oppose Mass Removal

"This is due partly to prejudice and partly to fear and hysteria augmented by unfortunate events in the Pacific," Mr. Jensen said.

"But I see no reason to question the loyalty of Japanese-American citizens more than any other second-generation citizen.

"In America we're famous for our humanity and internationality. I'm definitely opposed to mass evacuation unless it is a military necessity."

'You must realize we're at war with an enemy who does not share our views," said Arnold.

"Many people there do share them," Mr. Jensen said.

"But they're not running this show," interposed Congressman Bender.

"I believe that's true," Mr. Jensen conceded.

P. O. D. Vedova, Seattle attorney, a native of Italy who came to this country when 11 years old, said he knows of no one in the Seattle Italian community who is disloyal to the United States.

'Mussolini... Ham Actor'

"I believe no one is in sympathy with the Axis alliance," Vedova said. "In the first place, it's an unnatural alliance. The Italians have never been friendly with the Germans. I believe the Italians here think Mussolini is a ham actor, who sold them down the river."

Mrs. Louise La Salle, 1323 33rd Ave. S., pleaded for consideration to aged Italian aliens, giving a number of examples she said "could do nothing to harm the United States if they wanted to."

"They're too old," the witness said. "Some of them haven't been out of their homes in six months."

Dan McDonald and Mrs. Esther S. Boyd, both of Wapato, in the Yakima Valley, said they believe much of the clamor for evacuation "is coming from economic rather than patriotic sources."

"We've heard some of the whites say, 'Get rid of the Japs and we can have more land,'" said Mrs. Boyd. "But I have found and believe that the Japanese in our area are loyal Americans."

Labor Shortage Cited

McDonald, a farmer, said Wapato farmers were "short of farm labor last year and will be more so this year."

"I have a boy, 18 years old and if we have to fight, I'll not be afraid of the Japanese back at home," McDonald said.

Japanese among the spectators in the courtroom applauded for the first time during the hearing when McDonald and Mrs. Boyd testified.

Fred H. Lysons, Seattle attorney, said the Japanese have only two reasons for being here.

"Either the government sends them here as part of their program for world domination, or they come as a family proposition," Lysons said. "If it's the latter, they work all hours of the day and night and others cannot compete with them."

Hildur Coon, 4706 20th Ave. N. E., and Curtis Aller, 5012 22nd Ave. N. E., University of Washington students, spoke "in behalf of the Japanese and German students on the campus."

'I Think They're Loyal'

"I think they are as loyal as most of us. I am a first generation from Norway," said Miss Coon.

"Many of us have returned to the home of our ancestors, but I don't believe that must mean the Japanese are indoctrinated by a visit to their forefathers' country."

Earlier yesterday the committee heard a plea by Attorney-General Smith Troy for immediate removal of both alien and American Japanese. Troy said he feared mob violence would result from publication of casualty lists or war catastrophes.

The Washington State Prosecutors' Association was to discuss the alien problem at a meeting with Army, Navy and Federal Bureau of Investigation representatives today in Olympia.

Committee members said the records will be kept open for ten days for the addition of any written evidence citizens desire to offer. Communications should be sent to the Tolan Committee, Henry Building.

In other parts of the nation, the evacuation problem gathered opponents and proponents, the Associated Press reported.

Gov. Ralph L. Carr, Colorado, only one of nine Western governors who has notified Tolan that his state would accept Japanese alien, said he personally would urge Gov. Nels H. Smith, Wyoming, and Gov. Dwight Griswold, Nebraska, to join Colorado's stand. The three officials are to meet at a conference in Cheyenne Friday.

Solon Backs De Witt

Representative Anderson, California, urged Lieut. Gen. John L. De Witt of the Western Defense Command to "stand by your guns."

"The public stand of responsible state officials (in declining to accept evacuees) is absolutely inconceivable and incomprehensible," Anderson said in a telegram.


This was typical as the evacuation proceeded under Army supervision.Toshiki Katayama comes?? out of her home as she prepares to leave the island on which she always has lived.

Soldiers guarded the ferry dock at Eagle Harbor as the island Japanese were evacuated. ????? left to right, are Pvts. Sol Cohen, Henry Hoffmann and Walter Beck?, and Corp. Jerry K?????

Japs Accept Army Order With Bewilderment and Obedience

By Anne Stewart

Down Jackson St. way yesterday, the word curfew was one more bewilderment for Japanese Americans.

"Very nice, curfew," said J. Hara, barber at the Hinode Barber Shop, as he gave a haircut to his friend, Harry Yamaoka.

"Safer for Japanese."

"We got to take it," said his friend. "What government says, we do."

Up the street, pretty Yuri Takahashi, twenty-two, looked around the empty Sarashina Cafe which she manages.

"It's a blow to us Nisei," she said. "I was born and reared here. I remember when we kept the cafe open till midnight and later. But now we have no business. We keep open till 10, but after Thursday we will have to close in time to get home by 8 p.m. Lots of restaurants down here will have to close hours early. But we must do as we are told."

William Hosokawa, secretary of the emergency defense council of the Japanese-American Citizens League said that all day questions about the curfew have been pouring in at league headquarters, 517 Main St.

"There are men who work nights -- hotel clerks, laborers. They are afraid they will have to quit their jobs.

"There are students at the University who live on the campus during the week and go home over the week-ends. They don't know if they will be allowed to go home.


"There are gals who work as domestics and men -- salesmen -who go all over the town on business. We don't know what to tell them. Maybe they will get special permits, but maybe they won't."

Matsuo Hashiguchi, a Bellevue farmer who dropped in at the league office, joked about the curfew.

He said it would not make much difference to the farmers until crop time comes in May.

"There's no law says you can't stay home and play pinochle," he said. "But maybe we going to have to play it over the telephone."

And he pretended to lift up a phone receiver and say "I play the ace of spades."

Some of the younger Japanese American born talked the curfew over at the Jackson Ice Creamery as they drank sodas. They said the curfew was being talked about a lot at Garfield High School yesterday.

One pretty girl said she had a party planned for Saturday night but guessed she wouldn't be able to go. She said they'd still be able to go to shows on Sunday.

They said the Jackson Ice Creamery probably would have to close up early, too. They said they'd probably understand it a little better Friday night.

Evacuated Japs Assured Share Of Crop Return

Urging Japanese farm leaders to continue crop production until evacuated, Walter L. Cline, Farm Security Administration agent, yesterday said Japanese will be allowed to share in returns from the crops they plant.

Cline, special agent in charge of disposition of Japanese and Japanese-American farm lands, said offices of the Puget Sound area have been instructed to aid in every way possible the protection of Japanese interests.

Cline said that while no federal funds were available for such reimbursements, the administration field offices will help Japanese find qualified farmers who will be willing to take over their property on such a basis.

This may be either in immediate cash payments or on a "share-crop" basis, Cline said. In either event, he said, the F. S. A. will supervise the transactions and in cases where necessary, will arrange farm credit loans.

Both white and Japanese farmers interested in transfer of farm lands should report in Seattle to the F. S. A. emergency offices at 808 Second Ave.


Seattle enemy aliens and all Japanese, including American born, joined in observance of an Army-imposed, coast-wide curfew at 8 o'clock last night.

There were no known violations of the wartime proclamation that requires all Japanese and other enemy aliens to close their businesses and remain in their homes from 8 o'clock at night to 6 o'clock in the morning.

Minor Violations Elsewhere

H. B. Fletcher, special agent in charge of the Seattle office of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, said the curfew order will be enforced nightly, with no exceptions, even to Jewish refugees from Germany who have been unable to become citizens of the United States.

From other points on the Pacific Coast came scattered reports of minor violations, the Associated Press reported, but these were the result of ignorance or carelessness rather than willful intent, authorities aid.

Willful violators face heavy fines or imprisonment or both.

Meanwhile, Bainbridge Island Japanese were making their final voluntary migrations today. Monday morning Army troops will supervise removal of a majority of the island's 300 Japanese.

Diplomas Ahead of Time

Japanese residents have completed all evacuation plans, and Japanese seniors at Bainbridge High School have been given their diplomas, two and a half months in advance of the regular graduation date.

The Seattle F. B. I. office yesterday announced raids on homes of four Italian aliens, where contraband was confiscated, but no arrests were made. The aliens were allowed their liberty until a review of the cases by the Alien Hearing Board.

Agents said contraband included two short-wave radios, four rifles, a shotgun, a camera, 162 rounds of ammunition, 20 feet of dynamite fuse, and one detonating dynamite cap.

Seattleites Approve W. P. A. Jobs for Removed Aliens

Proposed payment of $40 to $45 a month from Work Projects Administration funds to support evacuated Japanese appeared today to meet the approval of Seattle residents.

The plan of using W. P. A. money for the evacuees is being considered by federal officials, according to Congressman Leland Ford of California, chairman of a House subcommittee dealing with evacuation on the West Coast.

The Japanese will be required to work for their W. P. A. wages and will pay for their room, board and other expenses.

Here are some sample comments:

Mrs. Charles T. Hickey, Crystal Lake -- I think it most certainly is a good idea to evacuate the Japanese but, at the same time, it seems only fair they should receive some compensation.

Mrs. J. W. Dunn, 3222 23rd Ave. W. -The Japanese would be willing to work for their money. During all the depression there was never a Japanese on relief and they would rather starve than ask for money they did not earn. They are leaving everything the have and their life work. You'll never find W. P. A. shovel-leaner among the Japanese.

Mrs. A. L. Giberson, 7706 Second Ave. N. E. -- I do think they should be given something. I think $40 or $45 is not enough, but at least it would help them a little. I'd like to see them have a real cooperative community.

Art Fowler, Mercer Island: Employment on the W. P. A. would probably be all right, providing, of course, that none of it was on defense projects of any kind. All Japanese who are loyal to the United States should be willing to do useful work during this emergency period.

Floyd O. Flint, 7720 20th Ave, N. E. -- I'd be heartily in favor of them getting something for their efforts, as many of these people who are entirely innocent are going to suffer hardships enough as it is.

Mrs. Freida C. Davidson, 5715 29th Ave. N. E. -- Giving the evacuated Japanese $40 or $45 a month seems to me the only fair thing to do. They have their pride and self-respect to maintain and they should have some compensation for the things they are giving up.


All Japanese who intend to evacuate voluntarily from Seattle and Western Washington must be on the move by Sunday or await????? Army-supervised removal, under orders issued yesterday by Gen. John L. De Witt in San Francisco.

The new order, preceding by????? one day the effective date of the????? curfew order requiring all enemy aliens to remain in or near their homes after dark, affects all other portions of Military Area No.????? including the western portions of Oregon, California and Southern Arizona.

The order, announced for????? Western Defense Command ????? the Fourth Army's civil affairs commis-????? sion by Col. Karl R. Benedetsen, assistant chief of staff for ????? affairs and head of the war-time Civil Control Administration, to insure an orderly evacuation and partly to protect the Japanese.

Japanese, Public Assured

"The 'freezing order' prepares the way for an Army-regulated program of removal and does not ????? curfew regulations, nor any other existing regulations except ????? ment from Military Area No. ????? Colonel Benedetsen said. "The Japanese are assured of the reso????? of the government behind ????? movement; the general pub????? assured of a ~ob followed th????? by the Wartime Relocation Authority, under Milton Eisenhower. The colonel said several Japanese groups planning voluntary evacuation "have been fearful of sta????? through reports of threats in ????? states."

Neglect of Crops Sabotage

"Meantime, General De Witt ????? warned the Japanese they ????? settle their affairs immediately, Colonel Bendetsen added. "????? neglect of crops is sabotage." Col. Walter J. DeLong, ????? draft administrator, said that persons who take over operation of Japanese farmers lands will be eligible for review of their selective service classification, b????? blanket deferments will be ????? Although experienced farmers are given occupational defe????? under existing rules, each case will be treated individually by the draft boards, Colonel DeLong ????? Assembly centers, to house evacuees while they are moving ????? their own homes to resettl???? areas, will be set up in Washington, but the sites have not been announced. California centers ????? commodate 16.000 evacuees ????? in Merced, Tulare, Marysville, and Pinedale.

W. L. Cline, field representative of the Farms Security Administration's wartime control organization, arrived in Seattle to????? an effort to prevent loss ????? $250,000 Bainbridge Island ????? berry crop and other produc????? farms to be evacuated by Japanese. Cline said he believes the????? be little loss, as most of the Japanese are arranging for ope????? to succeed them or canner????? arranging to find proper management, with the assistance ????? Seattle alien-custodian offi????? 808 Second Ave.

Bainbridge Island had 33????? Japanese strawberry growers last ????? with a yield of 3,000,000 pounds of strawberries.


SAN FRANCISCO, Feb. 24. -- (AP) -A last-minute order to permit aged and bed-ridden enemy aliens to remain in Prohibited zones was issued today, less than 18 hours before the midnight deadline set for the evacuation of 8,000 aliens from strategic zones.

Wallace Howland, assistant alien coordinator for the Far West, announced that Lieut. Gen. J. L. DeWitt, western defense commander, had approved three exceptions to the evacuation order. Heretofore there were no exemptions for any reason.

Those who will be permitted to remain are persons in hospitals or approved sanitariums; aliens producing doctors' certificates showing it would endanger their lives to be moved, and elderly persons who can produce reasonable evidence they are more than 75 years old.

The order was issued as a continual stream of enemy aliens, mostly Italians, trekked into the U. S. attorney's office seeking permits to travel or permits to work in restricted zones during the curfew hours of 9 p.m. to 6 a.m. The curfew regulations, covering nearly a fourth of California, go into effect tonight.

Forty-six military zones throughout the West are to be completely evacuated of Japanese, German and Italian nationals. In the curfew areas, some extending inland as far as Sacramento -- 100 miles -all aliens must be in their homes by 9 p.m. unless they obtain special permits for night work.

Move Japs Quickly, Calif. Solon Urges

WASHINGTON, Feb. 24. -- (AP) -Representative Elliott, Democrat, California, told the House today that "we must move the Japanese in this country into a concentration camp somewhere, some place, and do it damn quickly."

Elliott referred to the submarine which attempted to shell an oil refinery on the West Coast last night, and shouted:

"Don't kid yourselves and don't let someone tell you there are good Japs. Perhaps, one out of 1,000..."

Here his time expired.

Representative Leland M. Ford, Republican, California, said that newspaper accounts told how signals were made from the hills and said: "All Japs should be removed from areas where they can signal the submarines."

Japanese Are Ready to Obey Moving Order

The Japanese community in Seattle is prepared to "obey orders" if its evacuation is required, but, if evacuated, the Japanese would prefer to be moved inland by "communities" in order not to disturb their normal ways of living, James Y. Sakamoto, Japanese-American leader, said here today.

"We want to remain here and not leave other Americans to fight for our homes," Sakamoto said, "but if we are to be evacuated, we will obey orders.

"It would be best if we could he moved by communities, so that wherever we go we can operate gardens, build factories or perform any tasks as a unit."

In case of evacuation, Sakamoto said, the Japanese would ask for competent custodians to give suitable care of property left behind.

Japanese Problem

To The Post-Intelligencer:

Kagawa is the greatest statesman and the most humanitarian leader Japan has produced for many centuries.

If the Japanese people had followed the leadership of Kagawa the militarists of Japan could never have offered up their country on the altar of Mars to appease the god of Mammon.

If the American Japanese had established their homes in America upon the great cooperative principles as taught by Kagawa, they would now be at peace with this country, their own native land. The most intelligent solution of the Japanese problem here on the Coast is for the Farm Security Administration to lease land far from the Coast and allow the Japanese to build self sufficient cooperatives. This is the cheapest and also the safest for our country.

In these cooperatives the citizens can produce their own wealth and will not be a burden on the United States. If the government finds it necessary to guard these communities it will be much cheaper than watching thousands of scattered Japanese. This will give all loyal Japanese an opportunity to prove their loyalty to this country and will make them safe from molestation and race hatreds.

A. L. GIBERSON, Seattle

To The Post-Intelligencer:

S. Louise Foulkes goes to some length to tell of the good points in the Japanese character. Most of us admit them and most of us agree that tolerance is a laudable and democratic sentiment. All that, however, is beside the point. We are in a war and we know that there are many Japanese, even some that are American born, who will side with their relatives at our expense. It is impossible to weed out all of the dangerous Japanese or to be sure of the loyalty of the supposedly loyal. It is only human to side with one's own kind and the Japanese are no exception to this rule.

Our country, our democracy and the world's civilization are at stake in this most terrible of all wars. Why should we take such desperate chances as to allow any Japanese or any German or Italian aliens to be at large? All enemy aliens and all Japanese should be confined under guard till this war is over. They should be well treated but not coddled and the time to take this action is NOW before another Pearl Harbor.


To The Post-Intelligencer:

Many people are being sent off to concentration camps these days. Are we going to see to it that they are always "enemy aliens"? We have for horrible examples the concentration camps of Old World countries. American concentration camps should never be as these others. Very definitely they could be made stepping stones to a realization by these aliens of what Americanism really is.

Millions and billions of dollars are being appropriated for defense in its many phases. What better form of defense than to put instructors in each camp to train these people in the American way of life, to show them what true liberty is and how to use the freedom which they have been given in these United States?

Let's do something constructive, something really American in this challenging situation.


Japanese-Americans Aid in Defense Plans

Formation of an emergency defense committee by the Japanese-American Citizens' League, "to express our loyalty by deeds, not words," was announced today by James Y. Sakamoto, editor of the Japanese-American Courier and former president of the league.

The committee will cooperate with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Reserve Bank, civilian defense, Red Cross and other agencies, Sakamoto said. Headquarters for the committee are at 517 Main St.

L. A. Japanese Offer Plasma Donations

LOS ANGELES, Feb. 23. --(AP)-- Three Japanese, held on minor charges, were among the first to line up today as the Red Cross established a branch blood bank in the county jail. Jailers said donations were on a voluntary basis, but that the entire Japanese population of 800 had expressed willingness to participate.

Japs Ordered To Leave Large Area Near L. A.

SAN FRANCISCO, April 18. --(AP)-- The Army Western Defense Command today ordered approximately 3,000 Japanese to evacuate three large areas of the Los Angeles Metropolitan District by noon of April 28.

The order affected the Santa Monica Bay area from the bay to the mountains and including most of the communities of Malibu Beach, Santa Monica, Ocean Park and Venice; the area between Santa Monica and Beverly Hills, and all of the San Fernando Valley, including the communities of San Fernando, Van Nuys, North Hollywood, Burbank and Glendale.

Speeding up the Army's program of evacuating alien and citizen Japanese from military zones, Lieut. Gen. John L. De Witt directed that the evacuees affected by today's orders be removed to Manzanar reception center in Owens Valley in groups of 1,000 daily, starting Sunday, April 26.

RENEWING THEIR ALLEGIANCE -- These Japanese girls, all born in the United States, take a new oath of allegiance from Clarence Arai, American born attorney, renouncing any possible allegiance to Japan. Left to right, they are Jeanne Mori, Asako Kodama, Masako Wakabayashi, Mary Mori and Patricia Mori. Some of them had dual citizenship. (Story on Page 5.) --(Picture by Post-lntelligencer Staff Photographer.)

MANZANAR, Calif., March 22. -- The vanguard of Japanese being evacuated from West Coast military areas is shown on arrival today at the Japanese evacuee community being established in the Owens Valley here. They are shown being assigned to quarters in barracks. (Associated Press Wirephoto.)

10,000 Will Move Into New Camp

MANZANAR, Calif., March ?? --(AP)-- With Lieut. Gen. John DeWitt, chief of the Western Defense Command, arriving by plane to speed completion of the evacuee camp, plans were closed today to bring 10,000 Japanese here within the next two weeks. General Dewitt expressed himself as pleased with the progress made.

Clayton E. Triggs, administrative head of the camp, said that Saturday Japanese-operated ba??? shops, beauty parlors, tobacco ????? other shops will be operating. fore fall the Japanese will be growing their own vegetables.

The government plans to pay security wage to each of the ???onists. Skilled workers will receive $94 a month, with pay ????? ing down to $50 for unskilled persons. From this $15 a month will be deducted fro subsistence, and the rest will be kept for the ????? onists and paid to them when the war ends. Those unemployed will be cared for as wards of the government.

There are only two hard and ????? camp rules:

1 -- No Japanese may leave the camp once inside.
2 -- No liquor.

Vanguard of Group Arrives at Center

SAN FRANCISCO, March 22?. -- (AP) -- A few score Japanese men and women moved into the army reception center at Manzanar in Southeastern California today, a vanguard of the largest compulsory mass movement of civilians in nation's history, There were approximately eig????? Japanese nurses, stenographers and kitchen and dining room workers in the group that went ahead to help prepare the camp for an additional 1,000 who will set off from Los Angeles tomorrow in autos, trucks, buses and by tra????? [article abruptly ends here]


Mrs. Haruo Fujino sits on a roll of luggage on the fender of one leading car in the evacuation caravan. Her husband, who was president of the Oriental Restaurant Workers' Union here, will be head waiter at the assembly center.

Martha Okuda, herself a prospective evacuee, aids in checking in Japanese as they board a bus for the evacuation assembly center at Puyallup. Miss Okuda is a staff member of the Family Society and a U. of W. student from Oregon. She will be evacuated when she returns to her home state.

Japanese busily load their luggage into a truck as they prepare for their trek to the Puyallup assembly center. Baggage permitted is limited.

City Jap Evacuation Begins; Picniclike Gayety Reigns

[April 28, 1942]

Evacuation of Seattle's Japanese, the first mass movement of Orientals from the Pacific Northwest war zone, got under way this forenoon when an advance guard of 500, alien and American-born alike, moved in an automobile caravan to the new assembly center at Puyallup.

The 500 will be followed within three days by 1,500 others from other districts in Seattle and still later by the remaining Japanese in the city and by those from rural King County and other areas of north-western Washington.

While Seattle Japanese were in the process of moving, the Associated Press reported from San Francisco that the Army had ordered all Japanese removed from the city of Portland, Or., by next Tuesday noon. This is the first evacuation in Oregon. The Japanese in Portland will register tomorrow and Thursday. They will go to the assembly center recently completed in the Pacific International Livestock Exposition grounds. Portland has about 1,900 Japanese residents. Today's contingent of evacuees is being sent to the assembly center in advance to prepare barracks and grounds for those who will follow. Many skilled workers were in the first group.

Necessities Taken

Shortly after 5 o'clock this morning the evacuees began to arrive at three pick-up points previously designated, taking with them those necessities which the Army had advised them to carry. These included blankets, linen, silverware and dishes, extra clothing and personal necessities such as tooth brushes and razors.

Japanese who reported at Elliott Avenue and Virginia Street were the first to move to the meeting point in Beacon Avenue for the start to Puyallup. The Army had one bus which took 40 persons who did not have private transportation. Many friends, who will be evacuated later in the week, were on hand to bid the first contingent good-bye. Members of the crowd were in gay spirits. There was laughing and shouting and cheerful farewells. Children were in picnic mood and the departure was like the start of an excursion party. At Lane Street and Eighth Avenue South, five buses were provided for 200 Japanese without other transportation. Here, also, everything was cheerfulness. Another group left from the third center in Spokane Street near 21st Avenue South, but it was a small [?????????? line missing] their last look at Seattle "for the duration." There were no tears in evidence, only a few sad faces among the waving and smiling occupants of the many automobiles and buses.

Girls Bid Youths Good-Bye

Two white girls, in an automobile bearing a California license, were at the starting point to bid farewell to two Japanese youths. The youths sat in the girls' car until starting time came. Then they kissed the girls good-bye and joined the caravan.

Haru Fujino, former president of the Oriental Restaurant Workers' Association, Local 844, was among those who went to Puyallup today. He was accompanied by his family. Fujino said Local 844 had been dissolved because of the evacuation but would be reorganized when the war is over. He will become head waiter of the mess halls at the assembly center.

The Army provided an escort of scout cars and these were interspersed among the private automobiles.

Own Automobiles Used

Vans were supplied for moving the evacuees' personal belongings. They are allowed to take their auto mobiles to Puyallup but must have made arrangements for their disposal after reaching there.

The Japanese themselves, under Army direction, are arranging all evacuation details. The removal was organized by the Japanese American Citizens' League, headed by James Y. Sakamoto, editor of an English-language Japanese newspaper and the man who will be director of the assembly center for the Japanese. The evacuees will have self-government, which already has been organized.

Today's removal procedure went like clockwork, indicating that the later and larger evacuation will be accomplished with precision equal to that of a month ago when the Army removed 239 Japanese from Bainbridge Island. The Bainbridge Island Orientals were taken to the Manzanar relocation center in Owens Valley, Calif.

Seattle Japanese know they are facing a new life but are not certain where this new life will he lived. They will be kept at the Puyallup assembly center from a week to three months, according to previous Army announcements. A relocation and resettlement center has been established on government land in Idaho and the majority are of the opinion that all of the state's Japanese will be sent there.

The Puyallup assembly center [?????????? line missing]

This will take care of all Japanese in Western Washington except those in the extreme southwestern portion, who probably will be taken to the Portland, Or., assembly center. The 200 Japanese to be evacuated from Alaska also will go to Puyallup.

Army officials declined to reply to or comment on the charges made yesterday by Dr. Norman E. Magnusson, Pierce County health officers, that improper sewer arrangements have been made at the assembly center.

Dr. Magnuson warned the residents of Puyallup that occupation of the center will cause "an extreme danger to community health." He said no adequate treatment had been provided for sewage.

Dr. Magnuson said he had protested to the Army about the condition. It was learned, however, [?????????? line missing]

Farmers Not Affected

Evacuation orders so far have not affected Japanese farmers in the Puget Sound area, except those on Bainbridge Island, but it was indicated these farmers soon would be removed by the urgent appeal today by the Washington State War Board of the United States Department of Agriculture for farmers to take over Japanese land. The War Board said immediate action is necessary to insure that no crops are lost. Henry B. Ramsey, chairman of the board, said:

"Since the season is getting so late and the speeded-up evacuation program so imminent, all farmers and persons who can operate farms should make an immediate attempt to take over one or more pieces of Japanese land."

Ramsey pointed out that the secretary of agriculture, at the outbreak of the war, asked this state and others to speed up production of vital food for 1942. The evacuation will tend to hamper this speed-up program unless more persons are found to take over Japanese land, he declared.


Mrs. Dixie Ised (left), 24 years old, of Kent, lives just outside the boundary lines for this week's evacuation order affecting 1,050 King County Japanese and didn't have to register today, but she volunteered her services in registering her neighbors, of whom Miss Tomiko Miyaoka (right), 21, is one. Mrs. Iseri, a typist, also acted as interpreter for Japanese who have trouble speaking English. Born in Kent, Mrs. Iseri has never been out of Washington State.


King County's first Japanese farmers to be affected by evacuation orders and a new group of approximately 1,150 Seattle Japanese began registration this forenoon for removal from the military area beginning Friday.

Approximately 1,050 Japanese are included in the King County evacuation, most of them from 150 farms in the Green, White and Snoqualmie River Valleys. Officials of the Farm Security Administration, who are aiding farm owners in transfer of their properties to white or Filipino operators until after the war, said more than 50 of the farms already have been transferred and little difficulty is expected in arranging for the transfer of the others.

Evacuation Awaited

Many Japanese, officials said, have completed preliminary plans for obtaining new operators, and have been awaiting actual evacuation ????? before reporting the transfers to the F. S. A.

Officials believe the removal will have little effect on the produce market despite the fact that many of the Japanese brought their produce directly to Seattle. Crops raised by the group to leave this week included tomatoes, beans, celery, onions, rhubarb, lettuce, strawberries and bush berries.

The evacuation order, which states removal must be completed by next Monday noon, affects Japanese in south and east King County, including the areas adjacent to Boeing Aircraft Company properties, the Cedar River watershed, and a number of King County towns, cities and farm communities.

New Group Half Farmers

Registration workers pointed out that only three of the 2,200 Japanese removed in the first Seattle evacuation were farmers, and none among the second group of 1,500, hut half of the group being registered at Renton Junction today and tomorrow will be farmers or farm employees.

Many of the farmers have been operating ten or more years on verbal leases, although the majority had two- or three-year leases which were renewed as they were terminated.

The present evacuation order narrowly missed the families of Japanese living just outside Kent and across the river from the evacuation district boundary, hut the residents expect to go soon and are getting their affairs in order.

Children American-Born

For example, Mrs. Kisa Iseri and her nine American-born children were busy liquidating their affairs and preparing for the removal of all but two of the children.

Mrs. Iseri and her husband, Matachichi Iseri, came to the United States more than 35 years ago, settling at Sumner. Three sons were born on the Sumner farm; Thomas, now 34 years old; Mike, 32; and Mun, 31.

Then the family moved to the Kent farm on which they still live, and Mrs. Iseri had nine more children. Three of these died and six are living -- Mae, 23; George, 22; Daniel, 19: Oscar, 14; Carl, 12, and Bill, 9.

Father Moved to Montana

Mike is in the United States Army. Thomas, Mun and ???? are married, Thomas to a ???? woman. Matahichi, the father ????? taken in custody December ????? day after Pearl Harbor, a ????? moved to Montana.

George, who owns a service station, is liquidating his affairs ???? helping Thomas operate the ????? Except for Mike, the soldier ????? Thomas, who has been told ????? remain, the entire family ????? to be ordered away soon.

Meanwhile, Mae and G????? wife, Dixie, were assisting ????? of the Wartime Civil Control Administration today in registering other Japanese who must ????? week. Both girls are typists ????? served as interpreters.

Washingtonians Want All Aliens Evacuated
At Once, Says Langlie

An overwhelming majority of Washington residents believe total evacuation of enemy aliens is necessary immediately, Gov. Arthur B. Langlie today told the Tolan congressional committee as it convened here to investigate national-defense migration.

An even more emphatic stand was expressed by Mayor Millikin, who said he was giving what he believes to be the true sentiment of nearly all Seattle residents.

The hearing, conducted this forenoon in the County-City Building, moved to the fifth floor courtroom of the Federal Courthouse this afternoon. It will continue there Monday.

The governor called as the first witness before the committee, named for its chairman, Congressman John H. Tolan of California, said the people of Washington not only desire the immediate removal of enemy aliens, but want them to be taken beyond the state borders.

State Help Promised

"I can say to you we are ready to go all the way in this problem," Governor Langlie said. "We are ready to give every help possible to federal agencies."

The governor said "every precaution should be made to be humane and American is this task, but the people feel this is no time to worry about hurting feelings." In answer to a question from Tolan as to the sentiment of inland residents regarding removal of aliens to Eastern Washington. the governor replied:

"There is no question but that sentiment favors not locating them in the interior."

Safety Is First Factor

"In Eastern Washington we have huge irrigation canals, wheat fields which constitute a tremendous fire hazard in the summer, large forest areas, apple orchards and other agricultural pursuits," Governor Langlie said.

"The people feel they have too? much to protect against sabotage, relatively, as the West Coast industrial plants. I'm satisfied the people in the East Side have relatively the same sentiment as those in the west.

"Safety is the prime factor -safety of production, safety of the people. Being the nearest to possible attack, and having a large number of industrial plants -- shipyards, and airplane factories, and machine shops, and steel works, and lumber mills -- in this area, we have a grave responsibility. I can say to you we are ready to give every help possible to federal agencies."

The governor said there are 14,400 alien and American-born Japanese in Washington, of which about 9,600 are in King County and 2,000 in Pierce County, giving a concentration of 11,600 in the Seattle-Tacoma area.

"They are engaged primarily in agricultural work -- truck gardening, berry, fruit and potato-raising," Lannie testified. "In King County it has been estimated the Japanese work about 56 per cent of all agricultural land, and in Pierce County it's about 39 per cent.

"They also are engaged in many other lines. Many are in retail businesses -- flowers, grocery stores, small hotels. Some are in service agencies, janitors, redcaps for the railroads, laborers. Some are professional men -- lawyers, doctors and dentists. But basically they are in agriculture."

Many Educated in Japan

"How many of them have been educated in Japan?" asked Tolan.

"It has been the custom for many to return to Japan for some education," said Langlie. "In addition, there are many Japanese schools in the state which their children have attended, in addition to regular schools, sessions. These were discontinued with the declaration of war."

"Are Washington people jittery over the presence of Japanese?" asked Congressman Carl T. Curtis, Nebraska, a member of the committee.

"In a measure, yes," Langlie answered. "But I would say the people of Washington have been sane and the Japanese have been treated kindly. There have been no serious difficulties indicating malice and no 'jitteryness,' as you call it, to lead to riots.

"At the present time I would say the people have kept their feet on the ground, although no one can say, with the events of the war occurring daily, how long that will last."

Langlie said there are about 15,400 German aliens and 8,600 Italian aliens in Washington, constituting, with the Japanese, about 2 per cent of the total population.

"If they all were to be taken from the area, how about the farming situation?" asked Congressman Laurence F. Arnold, Illinois, a third member of the committee.

"That's rather a difficult question to handle," the governor answered, "but some have said it would result in perhaps a 20 per cent lowering of produce. Possibly we'd have to import some farm labor, or possibly we could fill it in ourselves.

"The question is just a little beyond me, but I would say a delays of 30 days can be the difference between having a crop or none."

"I understand Washington ranks first in lumber," said Tolan.

Forest Sabotage Possible

"It did, but it doesn't," Langlie responded. "We have harvested so much that it no longer does. I believe Oregon now has more uncut timber than previously, but there is a tremendous fire hazard in the summer months, lending itself especially to sabotage or attack. We have been giving more attention to this problem this year than ever before.

"Would the shortage of farm labor be sufficient reason for the residents to oppose evacuation?" asked Curtis.

"I doubt it," the governor answered.

Mayor Millikin was even more emphatic, stating that "due to events at Pearl Harbor and since, there is an overwhelming sentiment in favor of evacuation." "I believe military law should be set up and ????? leaving one citizen whose loyalty is questionable."

Millikin said the 1940 census showed 6,975 Japanese in Seattle, which has been augmented possibly by 500 or 600 more. The census showed 5,000 American-born and 2,900 aliens.

"Their removal would cause little unemployment," Millikin added.

"Their work mostly is a family proposition. We found that among 600 greenhouse institutions, there were only 800 employed. I don't think it would be necessary to move in new labor. We have many Filipinos who would he able and willing to work the farms, especially in view of the fact that the fishing will be nil this year.

No Trouble With Italians

"We've had no trouble with Italian aliens. Only two or three were picked up by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, but with the Germans it's different. They are an uncertain quantity. A few have come very recently. A few have been classed as aliens who have been forced here by Hitlerism."

The mayor said Seattle can offer the aid of the police, the home defense group, the ambulances, nurses and doctors of, civilian defense, and the cavalry brigade in removing aliens.

"I favor a prohibited area west of the Cascades in Washington and west of Highway 97 in Oregon," Millikin said.

"We have been told that there have been no attempts at sabotage," Tolan said. "These arguments are not very persuasive to me. It seems to me that experience at Pearl Harbor and other conquered countries shows that sabotage comes coincidentally with attack."

Few Could Do Much Damage

"The reason there has been none is because there has been no word from Tokyo," Millikin said. "Probably 7,900 of the alien Japanese here are above reproach, but the other 100 could burn this city, let in Jap airplanes, and raise havoc that would dwarf Pearl Harbor.

Mayor Harry P. Cain, Tacoma, said there are only 1,480 aliens in Tacoma, of which 859 are Japanese. Of these, 317 are alien Japanese, he said.

Shortly after the hearings opened, Tolan, announcing he has been informed that stringent evacuation orders are "imminent," revealed he had sent the following telegram to President Roosevelt:

"My understanding that evacuation order is imminent. Think it imperative that appointment of alien property custodian and also coordinator for enemy-alien problems precede or at least coincide with announcement of order.

"Unnecessary to indicate to you that coordinator should be experienced administrator trained in handling community and family relationship problems, including welfare, health, resettlement.

"Coordinator's job will include reemployment and agricultural problems. Urge also that coordinator's office start at once making plans for creating boards similar to present enemy-alien hearing boards or comparable local machinery for examining loyalty of Italian and German aliens and certification of status. Coordinator should keep local officials informed of developments and consult them as far as possible."

2,000 More Seattle Japanese Ordered Removed This Week

Groups in Yesler District Scheduled for Evacuation Friday and Saturday; Registration Tomorrow and Tuesday

Approximatively 2,000 more Japanese from two additional Seattle areas will he evacuated to the Puyallup assembly center Friday and Saturday forenoon, bringing the number removed from this city to 4,000, it was announced yesterday by the Army's Western Defense Command.

The Japanese must be out of both areas by Saturday noon, according to two civilian-exclusion orders issued by Lieut. Gen. J. L. De Witt.

Areas Defined

The two Seattle areas which are affected by the orders are:

1. That Portion of the city within the boundary beginning at the intersection of Maynard Avenue and Yesler Way; thence easterly in Yesler Way to 12th Avenue; thence southerly in 12th Avenue South to Dearborn Street; thence westerly in Dearborn Street to Fifth Avenue South; thence northerly in Fifth Avenue South to Jackson Street; thence easterly in Jackson Street to Maynard Avenue;, thence northerly in Maynard Avenue to point of beginning. This area is included in Exclusion Order No. 36.

2. That portion of the city within the boundary starting at the intersection of 12th Avenue and Yesler Way; thence easterly in Yesler Way to 23rd Avenue; thence southerly in 23rd Avenue South to Dearborn Street; thence westerly in Dearborn Street to 12th Avenue South; thence northerly in 12th Avenue South to the point of beginning. This area is included in Exclusion Order No. 37.

No evacuation order has been issued for Japanese living in the area north of Yesler Way to the north city limits and east of Fifth Avenue, Eastlake Avenue and Roosevelt Way.

Two Offices Opened

Meanwhile, the agricultural division of the wartime Civil Control Administration yesterday opened two new offices in the White River Valley in efforts to speed the transfer of nearly 3,000 acres of rich Japanese-operated land before the final evacuation of Japanese, scheduled for May 20.

Offices were opened in Auburn in the American Legion Hall, 120 Main St. W., and in Sumner at 908 Cherry St., it was announced by Frank Kershisnik, W. C. C. A. district officer.

Both Japanese farmers and farmers capable of taking over Japanese operations were urged to report immediately to one of the offices, or to the Kent office at 229 First Ave., to make arrangements for transfer of the property.

Nearly 300 truck and berry farms, most of them under ten acres in size, are available to experienced farmers, in the White River Valley. Approximately 40 farms totaling 800 acres still are available in Pierce County.

Branch offices of the King County War Board of the Department of Agriculture will be opened tomorrow at Kent to assist farmers in obtaining a War Board certificate of competence.

Kershisnik urged both Japanese and persons leasing land to Japanese to make immediate arrangements to transfer operations. In cases where Japanese or other persons involved are unable or unwilling to make reasonable arrangements, all property and interests can be "frozen" by the W. C. C. A. and held by the government for temporal operation or future disposition, Kershisnik said.

More in California Leaving

In addition to the Seattle removal, General De Witt ordered the evacuation of 4,500 more Japanese from various California areas and 400 from widely scattered districts in Arizona.

All Seattle Japanese affected must register either tomorrow or Tuesday between 8 o'clock in the morning and 5 o'clock in the evening.

Those affected by Order No. 36 will register at the Japanese Chamber of Commerce, Rooms 111-112, 316 Maynard Ave. Those covered by Order No. 37 will register at the civil control station to be established in the Buddhist Temple, 1427 Main St. The head or a respon- [article abruptly ends here]


Shortly after the United States declared war on Japan, it became apparent that we Japanese American Citizens were becoming the target of politicians, racists groups, and newspapers. We were called spies, and saboteurs, and accused of all manners of fifth column activities. The West Coast Newspapers maintained a steady howl of hysterical and inflammatory rhetoric.

Articles detailing the grim horrors of the Pacific War were grouped together with the articles concerning American Citizens of Japanese Ancestry, using the same derogatory and degrading terms reserved for the enemy. Is it any wonder then, that the Americans of Japanese Ancestry and the enemy became synonymous in the minds of White Americans?

The articles couched in inflammatory and irresponsible language, based on lies, half truths, and innuendo, were powerful weapons used on a helpless population. We Nisei and our parents were powerless and voice-less.

My sister, Yoriko Watanabe Sasaki, began collecting newspaper articles to preserve this painful record. As an older Nisei, she was well acquainted with racial discrimination, and felt that the hysteria of the war years was a brutal example of race hatred. She preserved these articles to serve as a reminder of the danger of racial hatred, prejudice and bigotry. She hoped that such a reminder would help to prevent a repetition of the Evacuation and all of the other pain experienced by the Japanese Americans.
James Watanabe, M.D.

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