RG 331 Box 940
Notation for clarity or fact added by Center For Research in
IN THE MATTER OF JAPANESE WAR CRIMES
AND IN THE MATTER OF THE ILL- TREATMENT OF
PRISONERS OF WAR AT FUNATSU PRISONER
OF WAR CAMP BETWEEN JULY 1944 AND AUGUST 1945
A F F I D A V I T
I, Robert CLARKE, Pte., No. 2979160, attached to the Garrison
Military Police, Maryhill Barracks, Maryhill Road, Glasgow [Scotland],
with permanent home address at Bridge Street, Glasgow, make oath
and say as follows:
While serving with the 2nd Battalion of the Argyl & Sutherland
Highlanders at Singapore, I was captured on 15th February, 1942,
by the Japanese and became a prisoner of war in Changi Prisoner
of War Camp. On 11th August, 1944, I was transferred to the Japanese
Prisoner of War Camp at Funatsu, Japan, where I remained until
the cessation of hostilities.
(a) I knew Pte. James S. MANN, an American soldier who was
also a prisoner of war at Funatsu. About the end of July, 1945,
I learned that he had been placed in the guardroom by the Japanese
guards. It appeared that MANN had walked out of the camp and
the Japanese guards probably thought that he was trying to escape.
For some time prior to this incident, MANN had been in very poor
health. Like many other prisoners of war he was extremely thin
and had been receiving treatment form our own Medical Officer,
so far as I can remember, for dysentery, malaria, and malnutition.
I do not think he knew what he was doing when he walked out of
The first I knew of this incident was about 6 p.m. one day in
July, 1945, when I returned from working outside the camp and
saw Pte. MANN standing outside the Japanese guardroom. Around
him were two or three Japanese guards. One of those guards was
a civilian engineer who had a piece of wood in his hand and which
he was using to strike MANN on the head and body. At that time,
MANN was bleeding from a wound in his face, probably caused by
one of the blows struck by this civilian engineer guard. MANN
was repeatedly falling to the ground and each time he did so,
the civilian engineer guard and the others pulled him to his
feet and then went on striking him repeatedly with their fists
and kicking him on the legs. I was able to observe this ill-treatment
of MANN for approximately 5 minutes as I was one of the work
party which had come into the camp and had been halted immediately
outside the guardroom gate.
During this period, the civilian engineer guard was the chief
culprit in assaulting Pte. Mann. As the work party of which I
was a member, was marched away, the ill-treatment of MANN was
From what I learned from others, the ill-treatment of MANN had
started some time before I appeared on the scene and continued
for some time after I had left. I was aware that MANN was kept
in close confinement in the guardroom from then onwards.
About a week later, about 11 p.m., I was on fire picket duty
and stationed 20/25 years from the guardroom when I heard Pte.
MANN screaming and shouting as if he were in terrible pain. I
could hear him shouting, Why dont you shoot me? MANN continued
to scream, moan and shout the same phrase for the four hours
I was on fire picket duty. During that time and while MANN was
screaming, I heard the civilian engineer guard, whose photograph
I identify, and the senior private soldier Japanese guard, nicknamed
The Bull [Picture]
swearing at him in Japanese.
I hear their voices repeatedly during the time that MANN was
shouting and I was convinced that they were ill-treating him
but I could not see anything. I do not know when the ill-treatment
ceased but it was still taking place when I went off fire picket
duty about 2.30 or 3 a.m. Even after I reached my own quarters,
some distance away, I could still hear faint screams coming from
the guardhouse and presumed that MANN was still being ill-treated.
A few days later I learned that Pte. MANN had died and I was
satisfied that his death had been caused or accelerated by the
ill-treatment meted out to him by the civilian engineer guard,
the guard nicknamed The Bull as well as other Japanese guards.
(b) I knew Sergeant YAMANAKA, [Yamasaki]
[Picture] the Japanese
in charge of the medical affairs of the camp. At that time he
would be about 30 years of age, 5'8" on height and heavily
built. I can recall that in 1945, Sergeant McPhee of the 2nd
Argulls, also a prisoner of war in the camp, was sick and had
been off work for quite a time. He was emaciated, in very poor
health and I think he was suffering from beri-beri. At that time
he was in an extremely weak condition and definitely unfit for
It appears that Sergeant YAMANAKA found McPhee smoking, which
was considered to be a crime in the camp, and because of this,
YAMANAKA sent Sergeant McPhee to do heavy plate lifting work
in the foundry situated outside the camp. McPhee was absolutely
unfit to handle the lead plates which was the type of work allocated
to him. He was compelled to work in the foundry along with the
other prisoners of war, from 7 a.m. until 4 p.m. daily. Although
his condition did not improve, YAMANAKA insisted that he continue
at this work and so far as I cam remember, he was still doing
foundry work at the cessation of hostilities.
I was aware that YAMANAKA repeatedly made sick men work in the
There would be approximately 300 prisoners of war in the camp,
almost everyone of whom was in poor health, suffering from malnutrition,
dysentery and beri-beri, for which medical supplies were required.
At no time did I see any medical supplies given out to the prisoner
of war. Many of them were suffering from ulcers [skin ulcers
from infected scratches or cuts] but the only medical treatment
they received was from their own British and American medical
officers who did a very good jon without equipment and medical
(c) I knew Pte. Leroy Priest, an American prisoner of war in
the camp. I can recall that in November or December, 1944, he
wandered out of the camp, was recaptured and taken to the guardroom.
I did not actually see him beaten up or ill-treated by the Japanese
but I later learned he had been confined in the guardroom without
adequate protection from the cold and that as a result of his
exposure, his toes had to be amputated.
(d) I knew Pte. FREEMAN and Pte. HORPLING [Freeman,
Clarence A., USN and Horpling is Hoefling, Delbert Leon, USN],
American prisoners of war who, during the winter of 1944/45 were
caught stealing Red Cross supplies and were confined in the guardroom
without proper protection from the cold. I later learned that
both men had lost some toes as a result of frostbite.
(e) In June or July, 1945, some cigarettes were stolen from a
Japanese store which was usually under the charge of a guard
known to me as TAKIBIAS [Picture].
As a result, the Japanese guards ordered all the prisoners to
parade and stand at attention for about one and a half hours,
while their clothing and persons were searched by the guards.
I learned that the Japanese guards had beaten up some of the
American prisoners of war regarding this incident, but I did
not see the ill-treatment taking place. I also learned that Pte.
ROLAND [Roland Lee R., PFC, 19016700,
CAC, 60th CA, Btry L], an American prisoner of war,
confessed to the theft of the cigarettes. He was paraded in front
of the American N.C.Os. And stripped to the waist. Each of these
N.C.Os., about twenty or more, was issued with a belt and compelled
to strike Pte. ROLAND with it, one after the other. One of the
guards supervising this ill-treatment of ROLAND was The Bull.
Apparently he was dissatisfied with the way in which one of the
American N.C.Os. Was striking ROLAND. He stepped forward, struck
the American N.C.O. a blow on the face with his hand, took the
strap from him and proceeded to strike Pte. ROLAND two severe
blows on the body with this belt, by way of demonstrating to
the Americans how the belt was to be used.
After that episode, ROLAND was taken to the guardroom where he
was confined for several days.
(f) I remained at Funatsu camp until the cessation of hostilities
and during the time I was there, I repeatedly saw Japanese guards
assaulting American, British and Dutch prisoners of war, by slapping
their faces, kicking them on the legs with their booted feet
or striking them with the butts of their rifles. Such ill-treatment
occurred on many occasions for no reason whatsoever and on several
occasions for what was deemed to be offences, such as failing
to salute or bow to the Japanese guards.
Early in January, 1945, five other British prisoners of war and
I were paraded in front of the guardroom by the Japanese guard
known as The Bull for stealing small pieces of coke from the
works outside the camp. We had taken the coke to make a fire
in our bungalow as it was extremely cold at that time and there
were about five or six feet of snow. We were only allotted a
small quantity of coal for this fire which could only be used
from 6 to 8 in the evening. The Bull searched us and found pieces
of coke on each of us. He thereupon slapped us on he face and
marched us to another part of the camp where he made us stand
to attention for one and a half hours.
On several other occasions The Bull struck me on the face with
his hands but I cannot recall whether or not he had any reason
for doing so.
About the end of 1944 or the beginning of 1945, there was a very
heavy fall of snow. In some places it reached a depth of 10 feet.
On one occasion while the snow was still on the ground, the storeman,
known as TAKIBIAS, ordered two Americans and myself to take a
barrow to the ration store near the works, situated about 200
yards from the camp. When we got to this store, we filled the
barrow with the rations for the camp.
On the way back we found that the barrow was too heavy for us
to pull through the snow and whenever we stopped for a rest because
of the load, TAKIBIAS immediately beat the three of us on he
legs with a cane. Each of us was marked by the blows and apart
from that we were all exhaustged and in a very weak condition.
As a matter of fact we were on the sick list and supposed to
be doing sick duties in the camp. TAKIBIAS continued to beat
us until we eventually managed to pull the barrow into the camp.
By this time we were all in a state of exhaustion and collapse.
On Saturday, 25th January, 1947, I called at the Central Police
Office, Turnbull Street, Glasgow, where I was shown a number
of photographs. I identified exhibit No. 1 as the photograph
of the Civilian Engineer guard [Mizuno
referred to in Section (a) of this affidavit.
I also identified exhibit
No. 2 [Hiroshi TANAKA]
as the senior private soldier among the Japanese guards known
to me by the name of The Bull as referred to in sections (a),
(e) and (f) of the foregoing affidavit.
I also identified exhibit
No. 3, consisting of front and profile photographs, as those
of Japanese storeman and guard known to me as TAKIBIAS
and referred to in sections (e) and (f) of the foregoing affidavit.
When these photographs were shown to me, the names and personal
details of all the persons portrayed were permanently obscured.
I have read over the foregoing which is a true statement made
and signed by me at the Central Police Office, Turnbull Street,
Glasgow, on 25th January, 1947, in the presence of James Finlay
Langmuir, one of his Majestys Justices of the Peace for the City
Signed /s/ R. Clarke
All of which is true as the deponent shall answer to God.
Signed /s/ J. F. Langmuir
Stipendiary Magistrate of
the City of Glasgow and
Justice of the Peace for
the County of said City.