"I don't think it is within my province to argue either for or against the evacuees. I am trying to give you the facts as to how we are running our program and why we are running it that way."
-- Dillon S. Myer










JANUARY 20, 27, AND 28, 1943

Printed for the use of the Committee on Military Affairs


ROBERT R. REYNOLDS, North Carolina, Chairman



CHAN GURNEY, South Dakota


HENRY CABOT LODGE, JR., Massachusetts

MON C. WALLGREN, Washington

HARLEY M. KILGORE, West Virginia







Washington, D. C.

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 11 a.m., in the Military Affairs Committee room, Capitol Building, Senator Albert B. Chandler [Kentucky] presiding.

Present: Senator Chandler, Senator Wallgren [Washington], Senator O'Mahoney [Wyoming], Senator Gurney [South Dakota], and Senator Holman [Oregon].

Also present: Senator Edward C. Johnson, of Colorado, Senator McClellan, of Arkansas, and Senator Robertson, of Wyoming; Representatives Oren Harris, of Arkansas; W. F. Narrell, of Arkansas; J. Leroy Johnson, of California; and George W. Malone, special consultant to the committee.

Senator CHANDLER. The committee will come to order.

Gentlemen of the committee, this is an inquiry that has resulted from a request of the chairman and the unanimous vote of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs, that the subcommittee inquire into the activities of the War Relocation Authority with respect to the Japanese who are in certain relocation centers in the country.

Mr. Dillon Myer is the Director of the War Relocation Authority, and this Authority was established by the President of the United States, through Executive Order 9102 of March 18, 1942, and this organization is charged with supervision of the Jap relocation centers.

Mr. Myer is here, and we want to conduct this hearing, having in mind the fact that Senator Wallgren, for himself, and Senator Holman, the Senator from Oregon, have introduced a bill which seeks to place these camps under the supervision and control of the Army of the United States.

I have asked Mr. Myer to come so that he can answer questions and give information to the subcommittee, so that we may report our findings to the Committee on Military Affairs, for such action as they may deem necessary under the circumstances.

The Senator from Wyoming, Mr. Robertson, is a guest of the committee this morning, and we are very glad to have you here, sir.

Senator ROBERTSON. Thank you.

Senator CHANDLER. The Senior Senator from Wyoming is present, also.

Mr. MYER. I will ask you to start just as soon as Senator O'Mahoney comes to the table.

I would like to put in at the outset a copy of S. 444.

(S. 444 is as follows:)
(S. 444, 78th Cong., 1st sess.)

A BILL Providing for the transfer of certain functions of the War Relocation Authority to the War Department.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all functions of the War Relocation Authority and the Director of the War Relocation Authority which relate to the removal of persons of Japanese ancestry from military areas in the States of California, Washington, Oregon, and Arizona, or to the relocation, maintenance, and supervision of such persons, are hereby transferred to the Department of War and shall be administered by the Secretary of War.

SEC. 2. (a) All records and property (including office equipment) and all personnel used primarily in the administration of the functions transferred pursuant to this Act shall be transferred to the Department of War for use in connection with the exercise of such functions: Provided, That any personnel transferred pursuant to this section, found by the Secretary of War to be in excess of the personnel necessary for the administration of the functions transferred under this Act, shall be retransferred under existing procedure to other positions in the Government service or separated from the service.
(b) So much of the unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, or other funds available for the use of the War Relocation Authority in the exercise of the functions transferred pursuant to this Act, as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall determine, shall be transferred to the Department of War for use in connection with the exercise of such functions. In determining the amount to be transferred, the Director of the Bureau of the Budget may include an amount to provide for the liquidation of obligations incurred against such appropriations, allocations, or other funds prior to such transfer.
Senator CHANDLER. Senator O'Mahoney from Wyoming, this is Mr. Dillon Myer. Come over here, Senator.

All right, Mr. Myer.


Mr. MYER. Mr. Chairman, may I ask, would you like me to take a little time to make a general statement as to the problem and program?

Senator CHANDLER. As you wish.

Mr. MYER. And then give an opportunity for members to ask any questions.
As the Chairman has said, the War Relocation Authority was established by Executive Order No. 9102 in March, 1942, pursuant to a previous Executive Order, No. 9066, which order gave authority to the Secretary of War, and subsequently to some military commanders at his discretion to carry out evacuations from military areas that he might designate.

About the latter part of February or the first of March, 1942, previous to the time Executive Order No. 9102 was issued setting up the War Relocation Authority, the first step in the evacuation of certain areas of the Pacific coast of people of Japanese ancestry was ordered by the military. I am not quite sure as to the areas designated at that time, but certain areas were outlined and all people of Japanese ancestry were ordered to leave them. They were allowed to move from those areas and find homes for themselves in the interior of the country.

That process was continued through most of the month of March. Approximately 8,000 people moved voluntarily under that order.

Those people began to run into trouble after a time, as might have been expected, as we look back on it now, for the reason that any migration of thousands of people out of an area into small communities or even large communities, and particularly under wartime conditions, would cause worries to the population inland.

As a consequence, on March 29, 1942, it was determined that the voluntary approach to relocation was not going to be satisfactory; that too many people might get into trouble and disorder might result. So the commanding general of the Western Defense Command issued a freezing order which held the Japanese people within the evacuated areas until an orderly program could be laid out. Meanwhile reception centers to be administered by the War Department were under construction.

Senator WALLGREN. By whom was that order put into effect?

Mr. MYER. By the War Department.

Senator WALLGREN. What was the purpose and effect of it?

Mr. MYER. The purpose, Senator, was to expedite the orderly movement of people into areas, outside of the evacuated areas, because many of them who had moved on their own were beginning to run into difficulties and because of the large numbers that were gathering in certain places. The effect was that movement of all people of Japanese ancestry was stopped until they were given orders to move into certain assembly centers.

Senator WALLGREN. In other words, they were kept in the place in which they were until arrangements could be made?

Mr. MYER. They were kept in the place in which they were until arrangements could be made to place them in reception centers.

Senator HOLMAN. Those that had already moved out prior to this freezing order into other places, I understand, at least in the Middle West, have not been recaptured and brought back into those centers, or are they still at large?

Mr. MYER. No, Senator; a portion of them were. A portion of the people relocated themselves in what is termed Military Area 2 of California, just over the line from the first evacuated area in California. The people who moved into that area and stopped there were later moved into reception centers and relocation centers. The people who moved out of California and out of other evacuated areas voluntarily, before the freeze order became effective, were not moved into either reception centers or relocation centers. There are between five and six thousand people who moved out during March 1942, and who never moved into reception centers or relocation centers.

Senator WALLGREN. Mr. Chairman, I would like to outline this thing, as I remember it, from the Pacific Coast, and the job we have done up to now on this entire evacuation problem to see whether it fits into the rather difficult situation. In the first place, there are 120,000 Japanese in the 3 West Coast States ---

Mr. MYER. Approximately 112,000, I believe, in this area.

Senator WALLGREN. You got 106,000 in the centers.

Mr. MYER. About that.

Senator WALLGREN. Approximately 120,000. This caused considerable alarm among the Representatives and Members of the Senate from the 3 West Coast States, and we held a meeting of all of the congressional Members of those 3 States. We met for 4 or 5 days in an effort to finally work out a recommendation to the President, that he accepted all the way, that is, that he would set up, he would ask the military authorities to set up certain strategic areas out on the 3 West Coast States, and that Japanese would be moved out of those strategic areas immediately, and all military installations around power plants and bridge heads, and so forth, and they have started the movement of evacuating those areas, moving them into these reception centers such as Santa Anita, Manzanar, and many other cities along the 3 West Coast States. The Army took over that job, didn't they?

Mr. MYER. There is one point, I would like to recheck. During the month of March people were allowed to move out at will.

Senator WALLGREN. Out of those strategic areas?

Mr. MYER. Out of the strategic areas, that is right, and find homes for themselves in other parts of the country.

Senator WALLGREN. Now the policing of each of these reception centers, the whole thing was under Army from the start they took care of that?

Mr. MYER. During the reception center period?

Senator WALLGREN. Yes.

Mr. MYER. Yes. They employed civilian police for duty inside the reception center.

Senator WALLGREN. After they built the reception centers, the Army still being present, taking care of the---

Mr. MYER. That is correct.

Senator WALLGREN. Of guarding the entire camp?

Senator HOLMAN. They were regulating their conduct, weren't they?

Senator WALLGREN. That is right, and then a little later they took the W. P. A. [Work Projects Administration] and put them in there to supervise the people, the education and feeding of them, and try to give them employment and work out some educational program for them while they were in these centers. I know at one time there were 17,000 in the Santa Anita race track alone.

Senator O'MAHONEY. Who did that?

Senator CHANDLER. The Army.

Senator O'MAHONEY. The Army took in the W. P. A.?

Senator CHANDLER. No, W. P. A. was asked to come in there.

Senator O'MAHONEY. Who asked them to come in?

Senator CHANDLER. I assume it was done by the President's order.

Mr. MYER. Mr. Chairman, it was done by the Army.

Senator O'MAHONEY. It was requested?

Mr. MYER. Yes; it was done because the Army determined, as I understand it, that they needed civilian help in administering the program, and through Mr. Nicholson they utilized a large part of his staff -- he had been the regional representative of W. P. A. out there -- in staffing those centers with civilians.

Senator O'MAHONEY. When you say "they," speaking of the Army, I assume you speak of General DeWitt, who was the man in complete charge of that area.

Mr. MYER. That is right.

Senator O'MAHONEY. The orders were orders which controlled the whole arrangement up to this point. Did the Army ask W. P. A. to come in or did someone else bring them in there?

Mr. MYER. It was the Western Defense Command that set that program up, through the W. C. C. A., the Wartime Civil Control Administration operating directly under the Western Defense Command.

Senator WALLGREN. What I want to know is, When did the Army release control at that point? It is my understanding the reason W. P. A. was brought in there was so that they could make provision for these people, relief provisions, they had to have some sort of assistance, and that is why the W. P. A. was being engaged in that kind of work, came right in there, and took hold. It was a big job.

Senator CHANDLER. What do you say about that, Mr. Myer, is that right?

Mr. MYER. Mr. Chairman, I would much rather have someone in the War Department answer that question because I know little about the details. In the first place, it was long before I came into the picture, and in the second place, it was their administration and not that of the War Relocation Authority.

Senator O'MAHONEY. It was your understanding, was it not, Mr. Myer, it was W. P. A. administrative personnel that was invited in, rather than that a W. P. A. project was set up?

Mr. MYER. I am not sure what the arrangement was.

Senator GURNEY. Do you know, Mr. Myer, whether or not W. P. A. funds were used to pay this staff?

Mr. MYER. It is my impression they were not.

Senator GURNEY. They were paid out of Army funds then?

Mr. MYER. Yes; as I understand it. In the assembly center period the Western Defense Command recruited a civilian staff, of whom the personnel head was largely selected from Mr. Nicholson's administrative staff of W. P. A. in that area.

Senator WALLGREN. The evacuation of the Japanese was in the hands of the military,

Mr. MYER. Absolutely.

Senator WALLGREN. When did they let go? When did they take over?

Mr. MYER. It was a gradual process. The military carried out the evacuation of these people from their homes. The majority of the people went direct to reception centers, however, there were some people who never came under the supervision of the Army in the reception centers.

Senator O'MAHONEY. May I ask by whom these reception centers of which you now speak were established?

Mr. MYER. By the War Department.

Senator O'MAHONEY. Then we are still talking about the removal into the War Department reception centers?

Mr. MYER. That is correct. The only assembly center we took over was Manzanar; this happened on June 1.

Senator HOLMAN. Locate it, will you please?

Mr. MYER. In California.

Senator HOLMAN. What part of California?

Mr. MYER. About 200 miles from Los Angeles in the Owens Valley in Inyo County. The center was taken over by the W. R. A. on June 1 as a relocation center.

Senator CHANDLER. How many Japanese do you have there?

Mr. MYER. Between nine and ten thousand.

The other relocation centers were in process of being built. Construction of the 10 relocation centers which we are now operating was carried out by the War Department under supervision of the Army engineers; the basic construction of barracks and other basic facilities. The last of these centers is not yet complete. They are still in process of construction.

Some of the relocation centers received people as early as May and June. We received people week by week from assembly centers and the evacuated areas. They had Evacuees from Hawaii, Topaz, 1943been under the supervision of the Army up to the time that they were turned over to us at the relocation centers. It was the Army's job to deliver these people by train, and naturally the problems involved up to the time that they were delivered to the relocation centers and checked into the centers were huge. That process has gone on, Senator, since the last of May 1942. It is still going on. We are now getting a few people from Hawaii. It was not until November 1 that we received all the population who had been living in the assembly centers, those from Washington, Oregon, California, and Arizona. It was a gradual process, and the breaking point in jurisdiction in all cases was when these people were delivered by the War Department to the relocation centers under the supervision of the War Relocation Authority. [PHOTO: "A group of newly arrived evacuees from Hawaii are pictured in their new barracks home. These evacuees, upon arrival in San Francisco, were given army issue overcoats to protect them against the Utah cold." (Topaz, 1943)

Senator WALLGREN. At the present time the Army has nothing to do with it whatever?

Mr. MYER. Yes; they do have something to do with them, Senator, but only in certain categories of responsibility.

We have had a very close working relationship with the Army. The Army provided certain services and still is where we can utilize them to better advantage, as, for instance, in the procurement of certain kinds of supplies. The Quartermaster Corps is set up to do that kind of a job, and has helped us in many ways.

Senator WALLGREN. They play no part, however, in policing?

Mr. MYER. Yes; military police are provided for each relocation center; they are under the supervision of the War Department. The Army does the guarding of the periphery, the outside of the centers, the external guarding. They check the passes of people going in and of people coming out. We are responsible for the internal security and guarding within the centers, unless we call for the assistance of the military police. We have an understanding that if we do have trouble, say of the nature of riots then the military police are called in by the director and given full charge during the period of disturbance.

Senator WALLGREN. The Army in nowise sets up regulation or restriction for any of the camps. In other words, your organization has complete jurisdiction?

Mr. MYER. Our organization is responsible for the administration of the relocation centers. Yes.

I hesitated because I was trying to think whether your statement was too all-inclusive because we do have a joint agreement with the Army. Naturally, we have a close working relationship with the Army; but we are responsible within the boundaries of the relocation centers.

Senator O'MAHONEY. You have set up two functions now the Army performs: (1) procurement, and (2) guarding.

Mr. MYER. Procurement is only on our request. They simply offer that as a service.

Senator O'MAHONEY. What functions are performed by the Army, and what functions are performed by your organization under your laws?Military police, Manzanar, 1942

Mr. MYER. The only function at the present time which the Army is specifically responsible for in relation to relocation centers is the providing of military police to guard the external boundaries of the center, as I have indicated, and to be available on call in case of trouble inside the centers. Otherwise we are responsible for the administration of those centers within the limits set up by the Executive order. [PHOTO: "Army military police go on duty to guard the boundaries of this War Relocation Authority center." (Manzanar, 04/02/1942)]

Senator O'MAHONEY. This Quartermaster's Corps operates respecting procurement only on request?

Mr. MYER. That is right. At the beginning, in setting up these centers we had an arrangement with the Quartermaster's Corps whereby they provisioned each of these centers with a certain backlog of supplies until we could get organized and be in a position to handle our own procurement and our own program.

Senator O'MAHONEY. Now, then, with respect to the guarding function, is the Army in any district, or any of its commanders, or any camps under the direction of W. R. A. or any of its staff?

Mr. MYER. They are not.

Senator O'MAHONEY. So that is altogether independent?

Mr. MYER. The military police are independent. We have a memorandum of understanding as to what functions the military police perform and what our functions are regarding the security of the camps.

Senator O'MAHONEY. Are the War Department performing any other independent function?

Mr. MYER. None that I can think of that relates to the relocation centers.

Senator O'MAHONEY. Would it be proper to say, with respect to all other matters, W. P. A. administers the camps?

Mr. MYER. Yes.

Senator WALLGREN. Under what appropriation do you operate?

Mr. MYER. We operate under an appropriation that was provided under paragraph 12, of title I, Public Law No. 678 of the Seventh-seventh Congress. The act is cited as First Supplemental National Defense Appropriation Act, 1943.

Senator WALLGREN. How much was allocated to this?

Mr. MYER. Seventy million dollars for the fiscal year 1943.

Senator O'MAHONEY. There was an allocation from the emergency fund of the President or the War Department prior to that.

Mr. MYER. There was an allocation previous to the beginning of the fiscal year. We started this program with emergency funds in March. We have operated under the appropriation for the 1943 fiscal year since July 1, 1942.

Senator CHANDLER. Mr. Myer, how many people are on your staff in Washington?

Senator HOLMAN. In that connection, Mr. Chairman, can you put in as you go along the amount of appropriations from beginning to end that have been made for this effort?

Mr. MYER. I will be glad to do so.

There has been just one appropriation made other than the original allotment, I think of $8,000,000 that was set up from the emergency fund of the President.

Senator HOLMAN. That would make a total of 78.

Mr. MYER. At the time the Executive order was issued there was an item of $8,000,000 allocated from the emergency fund of the President to carry the program from then up until the appropriation could be made. Then beginning July 1 we started to operate on the $70,000,000 appropriation that was made under the regular appropriation provisions of Congress.

Senator CHANDLER. I would like you to give us the number of employees and what---

Senator HOLMAN. May I ask that the pay roll be made a part of the record?

Senator CHANDLER. Certainly -- the employees in Washington get and the amount of money that they draw for their services. How many have you here in Washington?

(The matter referred to is as follows:)

Washington employees as of Jan. 17, 1943
Alexander, Hugh F
Procurment officer
Arnold, Edwin G
Chief business specialist
CAF-14 541.66
Baker, John C
Head reports specialist
CAF-14 541.66
Barker, Ethel G
CAF-7 216.66
Bernard, Thelma L
CAF-2 120.00
Barrows, Leland
Head executive officer
CAF-14 541.66
Biddle, Margaret E
Senior clerk
CAF-5 166.66
Bowen, Beverly C
Senior messenger
Brandt, Lisa M
Assistant clerk-stenographer
CAF-3 135.00
Brewer, Hazel L
Senior clerk-stenographer CAF-6 191.66
Brooks, Sara C
CAF-4 150.00
Buttedahl, Oscar L
Business specialist CAF-11 316.66
Byrd, Harold L
Property officer
CAF-9 266.66
Cahn, Seymour
Senior accountant
CAF-12 383.83
Cameron, Velma H
Senior clerk-stenographer CAF-5 166.66
Campbell, Alice B
CAF-5 166.66
Clear, John E
Finance officer
CAF-13 465.66
Colbert, Florence E
Assistant statistical clerk
CAF-3 135.00
Collins, Helen F
Junior administrative assistant
CAF-7 216.66
Collins, Lawrence J
Senior commercial enterprise adviser
CAF-12 383.33
Conner, Grace L
Senior clerk-stenographer CAF-5 166.66
Currie, Ralph D
Associate commercial enterprise superintendent
CAF-9 255.66
Curtis, Emillie B
Junior clerk
CAF-2 120.00
Dempsey, Mary Ellen
Assistant clerk-stenographer CAF-3 135.00
Dolence, Frances B
Clerk-stenographer CAF-4 130.00
Dunbar, Oleta A
Junior administrative assistant CAF-7 216.66
Eggesbo, Geraldine J
Junior clerk CAF-2 120.00
Embree, John F
Senior archivist
Erkkila, Mauritz C
Associate commercial enterprise adviser
CAF-9 266.66
Featherston, C. Moxley
Feldman, Dorothy I
Assistant clerk-stenographer CAF-3 135.00
Frase, Robert W
Principal employment officer
CAF-13 466.66
Geoghegan, Muriel S
Clerk-stenographer CAF-4 150.00
Gifford, Selene
Public welfare consultant
Gilbert, Jack S
Priorities officer
CAF-11 316.66
Glick, Philip M
Goff, Mary N
Clerk-stenographer CAF-4 150.00
Graham, Dorothy M
Assistant clerk-stenographer CAF-3 135.00
Greene, Joseph B., Jr.
Junior clerk CAF-2 120.00
Greene, Nellie E
CAF-2 120.00
Gunn, Sadie L
Senior clerk-stenographer CAF-5 166.66
Hagesteary, Anne
Assistant clerk-stenographer CAF-3 135.00
Harding, Frank S
Senior subsistence officer
CAF-12 383.33
Harding, Louise
Senior clerk-stenographer CAF-5 166.66
Helmers, Gladys E
CAF-5 166.66
Henderson, Nathaniel
Senior file clerk
CAF-5 166.66
Holland, Thomas
Chief employment officer
CAF-15 666.66
Howard, John W
Assistant mail clerk
CAF-3 135.00
Huston, Marguerite G
Clerk-stenographer CAF-4 150.00
Hyman, Margaret L
CAF-4 150.00
Jacobson, Leatrice E
Assistant clerk CAF-3 135.00
Jensen, Alice M
Assistant procurement officer
CAF-7 216.66
Johnson, Helen M
Clerk-stenographer CAF-4 150.00
Kavanaugh, Ruth L
CAF-4 150.00
Kimball, Solon T
Senior commercial organizer adviser
CAF-12 383.33
Lechliter, Irvin
Senior attorney
Levin, Ida
Assistant clerk-stenographer CAF-3 135.00
Markarian, Ellen T
CAF-3 135.00
Marks, Edward B., Jr
Senior administrative assistant CAF-9 266.66
McCowan, Bertha A
Assistant clerk-stenographer CAF-3 135.00
McLaughlin, James A
Assistant solicitor
McMennamin, Edward B
Principal administrative officer
CAF-13 466.66
Miller, Archibald R
Associate administrative analysist
CAF-9 266.66
Montague, Hampton J
Senior messenger
Moore, Eleanor P
Assistant librarian
Musolino, Marian K
Assistant clerk-stenographer CAF-3 135.00
Myer, Dillon S
Nelligan, Mabel
Assistant clerk-stenographer CAF-3 135.00
Paul, Helen C
Senior clerk-stenographer CAF-5 166.66
Perry, Florence S
CAF-5 166.66
Powell, Hilda M
Clerk-stenographer CAF-4 150.00
Powers, Clyde H
Principal engineer
Provinse, John H
Chief commercial service officer
CAF-15 666.66
Pyles, McKinley W
Reed, Ernest N
Principal agriculturalist
Richardson, William G
Principal commercial enterprise adviser CAF-13 466.66
Riley, Lillian B
Assistant clerk-stenographer CAF-3 135.00
Robinson, Leona C
do CAF-3 135.00
Ross, Daniel
File clerk CAF-4 150.00
Rossman, Otto
Senior commercial enterprise adviser CAF-12 383.33
Rowalt, Elmer M
Deputy director CAF-15 666.66
Sabin, Donald E
Principal agriculturalist
Scheidt, Melvin E
Principal industrialist
CAF-13 466.66
Scott, Catherine S
Assistant information specialist
CAF-7 216.66
Seltzer, Morris
Procurement officer
CAF-11 316.66
Siglar, Lewis A
Assistant solicitor
Silverman, Maurice
Principal attorney
Stauber, Benjamin R
Head consultant
Stenz?, Hall
Senior procurement officer CAF-12 383.33
Thompson, Grayce E
Senior clerk-stenographer CAF-5 166.66
Tozier, Morrill E
Principal information specialist CAF-13 466.66
Tynes, Richard H
Junior clerk CAF-2 120.00
Utz, Ervin J
Chief agriculturalist
Vaughan, Eleanor T
Senior administrative assistant
CAF-9 266.66
Watt, Reginald W
Associate attorney
Wharam, Ethyl M
Senior clerk stenographer CAF-5 166.66
Williams, Roy F
Senior messenger
Smith, Asa A
Field accountant
CAF-10 291.66
Burton, Jacklyn M
Clerk stenographer CAF-4 150.00
Carroll. Geraldine A
CAF-4 150.00
Cox, Kathleen E
Clerk stenographer, junior
CAF-2 120.00
Deaver, Sadieruth
Junior clerk CAF-2 120.00
Ferguson, Edwin E
Principle attorney
Hanson, Helen J
Personnel assistant
CAF-7 216.66
McKee, Ruth E
Assistant information specialist
CAF-7 216.66
Royer, Cecile H
Junior clerk
CAF-2 120.00
Wilt, Orel B
Refrigeration engineer

Mr. MYER. Approximately 110 at the moment, Senator. The size of the staff is in a state of flux in Washington for this reason: We have had up until the middle of December a regional office in San Francisco, and an office at Denver and one at Little Rock. We have made some realignment of them, and a number of people who were in key positions in San Francisco are being moved to Washington, and we abandoned the regional office there as a line office; as a consequence the transfers are just now in process. The total number of civil-service employees as of January 1 was 1,665 including all clerks, teachers, nurses, doctors, policemen, and including the field offices and Washington office. That is approximately half of what we estimated in July 1942 when I appeared before the Senate committee. It will increase this year to some extent, I think, because we are not fully staffed in a number of places.

Senator JOHNSON. Does that include teachers?

Mr. MYER. That includes teachers. There were 485 people employed in educational work as of January 1, 1943.

Senator WALLGREN. Have you any other function than taking care of these Japs?

Mr. MYER. Yes; the Executive order provides for the handling and relocation of evacuees from any area whether they are Japanese or anyone else---

Senator HOLMAN. May I pursue some questions---

Mr. MYER. May I finish answering?

Senator WALLGREN. Where are there any others?

Mr. MYER. We help with the individual exclusion program which is now being carried on by the War Department. After the War Department has determined what individuals should be excluded from certain areas, we determine whether they are financially able to relocate without assistance. In a few cases we are making grants for travel, for them to move out from the area where they are now located.

Senator WALLGREN. When you say "they"---

Mr. MYER. The individual excludee, do you know what I am talking about?

Senator WALLGREN. No; not exactly.

[Mr. MYER.] The War Department developed a program for excluding certain persons from certain military areas whom they feel are unsafe.

Senator WALLGREN. How many of those do you have?

Mr. MYER. I will have to get the figure on that, Senator. The last figure I saw indicated approximately 150 people have been moved. There are a number of other cases in process. Our major function is to interview these people after it has been determined that they are to be moved, to see whether they need assistance, find out what their assets are. If they do need assistance, we make them a grant for travel to the place where they are to go and give them a reasonable amount of money to live on for 30 days. After that they either presumably have work or they will be handled by the regular social agencies.

In this program we work with General Drum, on the east coast, and General DeWitt's office on the west coast, and there have been a few cases in the Southern Defense Command.

It was presumed any evacuation that required mass movement would be handled under this order. Our major job, of course, has been the mass evacuation of people of Japanese ancestry who were moved out from the Pacific coast.

Senator WALLGREN. The figures you were going to give, are they of all these people in comparison with the 110,000 Japanese here?

Mr. MYER. I don't know what the ultimate is going to be. I am simply saying that this program is under way. It is a small program, but it is a function that we are performing.

Senator WALLGREN. Now you have these evacuation -- these camps at the present time in Wyoming---

Senator HOLMAN. I was going to ask, Senator, if you will permit me, one of my questions was, to make the record of relocations, and the designation of these several camps -- I would like the record to be as complete as possible -- his general language reduced to specific statements.

Senator CHANDLER. Yes, sir.

Senator WALLGREN. And the number in each camp.

Senator HOLMAN. That is right, may I pursue the matter further?

Senator CHANDLER. Yes, sir.

Senator HOLMAN. You mentioned a while ago, a bit earlier in your testimony, about some evacuees coming from the Hawaiian Islands. Have all the Japanese in the Hawaiian Islands been brought to these relocation centers?

Senator WALLGREN. No; they got 250,000---

Mr. MYER. There have been, Senator, I believe, 550 people relocated from Hawaii in the United States in two different groups that came within the last month.

Senator WALLGREN. Do you know how they were selected? Of course, that is only a small, relative, proportion of the population. I don't know what the Japanese population is over there; what is it?

Mr. MYER. Approximately 160,000 people in all.

Senator WALLGREN. How were these particular ones discovered; by the F. B. I. again?

Mr. MYER. No; as I understand it, the people who have come here are voluntary evacuees, people who have indicated their willingness to come. In general they are people who had been moved out of certain strategic areas.

Senator WALLGREN. You have got about 250,000 Japanese, haven't you, in the Hawaiian Islands?

Mr. MYER. No; 158,000 plus is the figure. The War Department is handling all matters of policy in relation to evacuation. We have nothing to do with the determination about who is to be evacuated.

Senator WALLGREN. In other words, if you get these men, they are given to you by the Army?

Mr. MYER. That is correct.

Senator CHANDLER. Of the total number of Japanese you have under your authority, approximately 106,000, 70 percent of them, are citizens of the United States.

Mr. MYER. That is approximately correct.

Senator CHANDLER. About 30 percent are aliens?

Mr. MYER. About.

Senator CHANDLER. I wanted to get that on the record.

Senator WALLGREN. I don't know whether his figure is correct, 60 percent are the figures we have.

Senator CHANDLER. It is higher than that.

Senator WALLGREN. Of course, the record will be revised and the correct figures inserted at the proper place.

Senator CHANDLER. Certainly.

Mr. MYER. May I correct the record?

Senator CHANDLER. Yes, sir.

Mr. MYER. Seventy thousand of them are citizens of the United States our of approximately 110,000 people -- so that the percentage I have given would be a little off -- approximately two-thirds of them are citizens of the United States; that is nearly correct.

Senator HOLMAN. May I pursue another one and at the proper time---

Senator CHANDLER. All right.

Senator HOLMAN. In your remarks I would like you to cover it. The year 1942 is indicated when you say March and June, and so forth?

Mr. MYER. That is correct.

Senator HOLMAN. I would like that to appear at the right place in the record.

Then we have now had 9 months on this job. May I ask what the Japanese employed do, particularly as regards labor, and are the Japanese engaged in building their own houses and shelters, the material being supplied inside the area, or do we draw on outside labor for that work?

Mr. MYER. The Corps of Engineers at all of the centers constructed the basic housing, and other essential facilities before these people moved in.

Room at Minidoka, 1942It is not possible to move 10,000 people into an area with no place to live, and have them construct their own houses. The type of construction provided is what the Army calls "theater of operations" construction. For the most part, the buildings are tar-paper-covered barracks divided into rooms. The average-sized apartment for a family of five is a single room 20 by 25. For smaller families the apartment size is smaller. Those are provided with Army cots for beds, the only furniture that is supplied to them. [PHOTO: "Unpacking in their quarters at this War Relocation Authority center. Rear: Eva (left) and Emiko Yamashita. Front: Mici Yamashita (left), and Taka Sakai. Family groups are kept intact in housing. (Manzanar, 04/02/1942)

Senator GURNEY. And mattresses and blankets?

Mr. MYERS. Yes; I mean beds, bedding, and stoves.

Senator HOLMAN. May I return to my question? Is any part of the construction done by Japanese even after they arrive?

Mr. MYER. Yes; some of it is being done.

Senator WALLGREN. And when it is done you pay them for it?

Mr. MYER. I don't know whose question to answer first.

Senator CHANDLER. All right, we will try to get them one at a time.

Mr. MYER. It is a little hard to follow the order.

Senator CHANDLER. All right.

Mr. MYER. We requested the Army to build only the basic construction. We planned to build schools and additional quarters as we needed them for the administration staff, and any other buildings that we needed. This delay was a mistake.

At the time we planned that, we thought we would have all the people in the centers by August 15. We got the last of them around November, finally.

By the time we were ready to secure our materials, and to start construction, we found that we could not use Army priorities. We had to go to the W. P. B. for all our priorities. Consequently within the last 5 months we have devoted a great deal of time to getting priorities cleared. We are in the process at the moment, Senator, of constructing certain school buildings and some additional quarters for the administration staff, utilizing largely evacuee labor, who are paid at the rates of 12, 16, or 19 dollars a month above subsistence.

We are hiring some skilled foremen, skilled people to supervise the job, because we have very few---

Senator WALLGREN. You mean those are skilled Japanese?

Mr. MYER. No; outside people, carpenters, and so forth, to supervise the job, because we have very few in these centers who had worked in trades. We have some people reasonably handy with tools, but they had not handled much of that type of construction.

We are also hoping to do some additional construction, such as livestock shelters and other necessary buildings of that type which we hope to do largely with evacuee labor if we can get priorities to get the job done. We need the buildings in order to cut down our cost of operation at the centers through raising our own livestock and food crops. Is that an answer to your question, Senator? If you want more specific information, I will be glad to give any break-downs that you want, if you will indicate specifically what you may be interested in for the record.

Senator HOLMAN. I would like to get in the record such information as may be valuable to the committee for a definite understanding as to what practical use, if any, is being made of the available skills of the Japanese.

Mr. MYER. Well, let me comment briefly on that. We will be glad to give you a further break-down as to the general employment of these people.

I would like to call the attention of the committee to the fact that it has been a rather large task to get 10 cities built, and to get them manned, and to get services set up, and particularly cities that are unusual in certain respects.

For example, in addition to the demands of a normal city, which requires schools, which requires sewers, and the maintenance of buildings and police and of fire departments, and a large number of other types of operation, which have grown up over a period of years. In addition to that, we are feeding all these people in mess halls. We have the whole problem of transport and supply and feeding supervision which had to be organized and handled and, consequently, a large number of them are employed in the services of running the city. Approximately half the people in the centers are employed in different types of services.

For example, community enterprises which they are running largely themselves, such as stores, shoe-repair shops, barber shops, and so forth. There are anywhere from 16 to up to 500 people employed in the different activities on the project. They are paying their own bill for that.

Senator HOLMAN. How many projects in all have been built---

Mr. MYER. Ten.

Senator HOLMAN. The approximate average, then, can you submit that?

Mr. MYER. I will submit that. The approximate average would be around 175 people to do the project, on community enterprises.

On construction, as of December 31, the lowest number was 189; the largest was 520 in construction work. In agriculture, this would vary, of course, by seasons; it ranges from 3 to 874. The reason for 3 is that on one of the projects in Senator McClelland's State no agricultural land is yet cleared. They are cutting trees instead of producing crops now.

Senator HOLMAN. The idea is to produce these crops and with these---

Mr. MYER. That is correct. I will give you the figures on those for the record, if you wish.

Senator HOLMAN. Please.

(The matter referred to is as follows:)

Crop production, calendar year 1942
Area and product Production Disposition of 1942 production
Amount Value Used on center Shipped other centers Sold
Amount Value Amount Value Amount Value
Gila River:
Acres Pounds


--- ---
1,890 --- --- --- ---
--- --- --- --- ---
(4) --- --- --- ---
(5) ---
--- --- --- ---
Vegetables for seed
(5) (5) --- --- --- ---
Manzanar: Vegetables
--- ---
Tule Lake:

--- --- --- ---
Colorado River: Vegetables 8150
--- --- --- ---
--- 201,429
--- 75,000
1 Amount and value of crops planted in 1942, the harvesting of much of which will not be completed until the first part of 1943.
2 Disposition of crops actually harvested in 1942.
3 Revenue, Oct. 8 to Dec. 31, 1942, for pasture rented out.
4 Livestock feed.
5 Trial planting.
6 Vegetable seed.
7 Crop severely damaged by wild geese.
8 This acreage included that planted between buildings and on firebreaks. No record available of the quantity or value of the products.

Mung bean field, Granada, 1943
"Henry Inouye, evacuee supervisor of the Granada Relocation farm,
exhibiting in a field of mung beans produced on the center farm. (08/1943)

Vegetable production program, calendar year 1943
Area 1943 production plants Distribution of 1943
production (pounds)
Amount Value On center Other centers
Acres Pounds
Central Utah
Colorado River1
Gila River1 1,194
Heart Mountain
3,810,000 ---
Tule Lake
1 These data for vegetables planted in the fall of 1943, some of which will not be harvested until the early part of 1944.

Livestock production program
Area and product
Annual production
Anticipated production,
fiscal year 1944

Amount Value1 Amount Value
Central Utah:

375,000 $93,750
Poultry meat 275,000
75,000 22,500
46,000 84,375
Beef 2225,000
Colorado River:

Pork 2750,000 187,500
375,000 93,750
Poultry meat 2150,000 45,000 120,000 36,000
Eggs 3225,000 90,000 157,500
Milk 4720,000 72,000 576,000 57,000
Gila River:

Pork 2550,000 137,500
440,000 110,000
2330,000 99,000 264,000 79,200
Poultry meat 2110,000 33,000 110,000 33,000
Eggs 3165,000 66,000 123,750
Milk 4720,000 72,000 576,000 57,000

Pork 2300,000 75,000 300,000 75,000
Beef 2180,000 54,000 135,000 40,500
Poultry meat 260,000 18,000 60,000 18,000
Eggs 390,000 36,000 67,500
Heart Mountain:

Pork 2450,000 112,500
Poultry meat 290,000 27,000 90,000 27,000
Eggs 3135,000 54,000 101,250

Pork 2375,000 93,750
Poultry meat 275,000 22,500
Eggs 3112,500

Pork 2375,000 93,750 243,750
Poultry meat 275,000 22,500 75,000 22,500
Eggs 3112,500 46,000 84,375 34,500

Pork 2375,000 93,750 300,000 75,000
Poultry meat 275,000 22,500 75,000 22,500
Eggs 3112,500 46,000 84,375 34,500

Pork 2375,000 93,750 300,000 75,000
Poultry meat 275,000 22,500 75,000 22,500
Eggs 3112,500 46,000 84,375 34,500
Tule Lake:

Pork 2600,000 150,000 600,000 150,000
Poultry meat
2120,000 36,000 120,000 36,000
Eggs 3180,000 72,000 162,000 64,800
1 Assuming pork at 24 cents per pound, poultry meat at 30 cents, beef at 30 cents, and eggs at 40 cents per dozen.
2 Pounds.
3 Dozens.
4 Quarts.Clearing land, Manzanar, 1942
Mr. MYER. Employment on land development varies. There are only 4 projects where we have people employed at this time ranging from 43 up to 618. On the project where we had only 3 agricultural workers, we had 618 employed in land clearing and ditch construction. [PHOTO: "More land is being cleared at the southern end of the project at this War Relocation Authority center. Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the United States, is in the range of mountains in the background." (Manzanar, 06/30/1942)]

In certain centers, we have a few people employed in certain types of industry.

Senator HOLMAN. Do you want to---

Mr. MYER. That gives you a general picture.

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