The McMillin Report

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Complete Roster of all Guam civilian and military prisoners.
Interview of McMillin by Navy on 23 Nov 1945 details his transfer to Taiwan and the Mukden, Manchuria
Note: Roster now on separate page.

[corrections and notations in brackets]

By George J. McMillin, Captain, USN
11 September 1945
From: Captain G. J. McMillin, U.S. Navy

To: The Secretary of the Navy
Subj: Surrender of Guam to Japanese

1. On 8 December 1941, I was serving as Governor of Guam and Commandant of the Naval Station, Guam.

2. At about 0600, on 10 December 1941, I surrendered the island and military and naval forces located there to the senior officer present, Imperial Japanese Forces in Guam (Enclosure 1).
3. Since that time, and until 20 August 1945, when we were informed by Russian forces occupying the Mukden, Manchuria area that we were free, I have been a prisoner of war in Japanese hands. A report of my prisoner of war experience will be made in separate correspondence. The following report on the circumstances of the surrender of Guam is made from memory more than three and one-half years after the event. All notes made at the time were destroyed when the Japanese started periodic searches of personal effects, generally removing written matter. Dates and times mentioned are Guam dates and times.

4. The political situation in the Pacific was assumed to be tense during the summer of 1941. After an effort extending over several months, arrangements were finally made to evacuate all dependents, including civilians, from Guam. This evacuation was completed on 17 October 1941, with one exception, Mrs. J. A. Hellmers, the wife of John Anthony Hellmers, Chief Commissary Steward, U.S. Navy. Mrs. Hellmers was expecting to be confined for childbirth before the transport "HENDERSON" was due in San Francisco . All precautions possible were taken to be prepared to carry out the mission assigned to the Station, and to prevent surprise. The Station ship "GOLD STAR" was in the southern Philippines, and on the day preceding the start of hostilities was loaded and ready to proceed for Guam. On 7 December the Commander in Chief Asiatic Fleet ordered the ship to delay sailing for Guam on account of the serious international situation. A warning message was received from the Department about 4 December. This was the first information from the Navy Department regarding the international situation. On 6 December classified matter was destroyed by burning, in accordance with instructions received from the Navy Department.

5. About 0545, 8 December, a message was received which had been originated by the Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet, to the effect that Japan had commenced hostilities by attacking Pearl Harbor, prior to a declaration of war. Steps were taken immediately to evacuate the civilian population from Agaņa, and from the vicinity of possible military objectives, in accordance with a plan previously prepared. All Japanese nationals were arrested at once, and confined in jail. All navigation lights were ordered extinguished. Schools were suspended, and church gatherings prohibited. The civil population had been previously instructed about what they should do in air raids. The Bank of Guam was ordered to remain closed. All activities were ordered to take station for carrying out the assigned mission, but instructions were issued that no destruction was to start without specific orders from Government House, or when it was definitely apparent that the Japanese were on the Island.

6. The U.S.S. PENGUIN had been on patrol off the Harbor entrance during the night. This nightly patrol of the PENGUIN or a Y.P. boat had been in effect for about six months. The PENGUIN was informed by radio, and instructed to remain outside the Harbor prepared for air raids.
7. The Insular Force Guard (about 80 natives of Guam), a force that was authorized for enlistment in April 1941, were assembled in the Guard Headquarters on the Plaza in Agaņa. The U.S. Marines (less about 50 on duty on patrol stations throughout the island, plus police and Government House detail) were at the Marine Barracks, Sumay.

8. Enemy planes appeared from the direction of Saipan shortly after eight o'clock, and the first bombs were dropped on the Marine Reservation and vicinity at 0827. The Marines were in barracks, or on their normal duties throughout the post. Several were injured running across the golf course, for protection in the surrounding thickets. The Pan Air Hotel kitchen received a direct hit, and several native employees were killed. An attack was made on the U.S.S. PENGUIN outside the Harbor; the ship gallantly fought, but was soon in a sinking condition. Ensign White, U.S.N.R., was killed by machine gun fire at his station on the AA gun. The PENGUIN had the only guns on the Station larger than a .30 caliber machine gun. The ship was abandoned in a sinking condition, and sank in deep water off Orote Point. There were several men injured, but all of the crew succeeded in getting ashore on life rafts, bringing Ensign White's body with them. The Captain, Lieutenant J.W.. Haviland, 3rd, U.S. N., was wounded. A complete list of dead and wounded is attached (Enclosure 2). The Navy Yard, Piti, was badly strafed and bombed, with considerable damage to material. The U.S.S. ROBERT L. BARNES was strafed and bombed at her buoy in the Harbor. Several leaks were started in her hull. The radio station at Libugon was strafed and bombed during the day. One bomb wrecked a civilian house near the Naval Hospital, and not far from Government House. The house had been occupied by Tweed, G.R., radioman first class, U.S. Navy. The greatest number of planes seen at one time during the day was nine. They generally came in at an altitude of about 1500 feet.

9. Bombing was discontinued about 1700, and not resumed until about 0830 the following day. A report came in that a native dugout had landed about daybreak near Ritidian Point, the northern end of the island, and that about eight Japanese from Rota had entered the island. The patrol and police arrested and brought in three men who admitted that they were natives of Saipan, that they had relatives in Guam, and that the Japanese had sent them over to act as interpreters when the Japanese landing force arrived. These men were identified by reliable natives of Guam as residents of Saipan. The men said the Japanese would make their landing the next morning (Tuesday), in the vicinity of Recreation Beach, to the eastward of Agaņa. This proved correct, except that the landing was made on Wednesday, 10 December. I asked these men why they gave me this information. They replied to the effect that the Japanese had treated the natives of Saipan like slaves, and that they had determined to tell what they knew, even though they would be shot should the Japanese find out about it. I was not inclined to accept the story at the time since I thought it might be a trick to have the Marines moved from Sumay to the Beach during the night, in order that they might make a landing in the Apra Harbor area without opposition. The three informers were locked up in jail, where the Japanese found them two days later.

10. Bombing continued on Tuesday, 11 December. No surface ships were seen until the next day when the landing was made. Considerable additional material damage was done at the Marine Reservation, Pan Air Installation, Standard Oil tanks (which had been set on fire by bombs on Monday, 10 December), Navy Yard, Piti, and Libugon. Lookout stations at Ritidian Point were machine gunned, also the villages of Dededo, Inarajan, Merizo, and Umatac. A bomb possibly intended for Government House, or the Communications Office, struck an old Spanish house across a narrow street from the jail, where all the Japanese residents were confined. The house was demolished and the Japanese badly shaken, but they were protected by the concrete walls of the jail. They begged to be released, but were kept in confinement until the invading force released them the following day. During the bombings, the planes were kept under fire as much as possible by .30 caliber machine guns and rifles. There were reports of planes being damaged and shot down, but none of these reports were verified. Another bomb wrecked a civilian house about fifty yards to the eastward of Government House. Another fell in Government House gardens.

11. The U.S. Marines at the Marine Barracks, Sumay, took up a field position in the butts of the rifle range, under Command of Lieutenant Colonel William K. McNulty, U.S.M.C. [Not true]

12. About 0400 on Wednesday, 10 December, I was informed by the watch that flares had been seen in the vicinity of the beach to the eastward of Agaņa (Recreation Beach, Dungas [Dungca's] Beach), and it was thought landing operations were in progress. There were no defenses at this point, or at any other point on the island. Orders were immediately sent to all stations to carry out the mission assigned. About 0445, shooting was heard in the San Antonio district (east of the Plaza), and fires were observed. The Insular Force Guard took up defense positions in the Plaza, with no equipment except a few .30 caliber machine guns and rifles. The Japanese approached rapidly through the San Antonio district, and approached the Plaza on the narrow street alongside the Naval Hospital and Cathedral. The Insular Force Guard stood their ground, and opened up a fire with machine guns and rifles hot enough to halt the invading force for a short time. The situation was simply hopeless, resistance had been carried to the limit. At about 0545, three blasts were sounded on the horn of an automobile which was standing in front of Government House. This was not a prearranged signal to cease fire, but it seemed to have been understood by both sides, and firing stopped immediately. The Japanese shouted across the Plaza from the Cathedral, "Send over your Captain." Commander Donald T. Giles, the aide for civil affairs to the Governor, and Chief Boatswain's Mate Robert Bruce Lane, U.S. Navy, stepped out. They were marched through the San Antonio district, and made contact with the Commander of the Naval landing force, returning about a half hour later to the Plaza with the Commander.

13. I was captured in the Reception Room of my quarters about twenty minutes after the cease firing signal. The leader of the squad of Japanese who entered my quarters required me to remove my coat and trousers before marching me into the Plaza, where officers and men were being assembled, covered by machine guns.

14. At about 0645, Commander D.T. Giles returned with the Japanese officer to the assembled group in the Plaza.

15. Commander Giles identified me as the Governor of Guam. The Japanese Commander, Commander Giles, and myself entered Government House. Members of the Japanese guard were armed with rifles and fixed bayonets. None of the Japanese group spoke English. I was able to indicate that Japanese local residents were confined in the jail across the Plaza. Shinahara, Shimizu, and Mrs. Sawada were sent for. Mrs. Sawada was very emotional and in tears. Shinahara did the interpreting. The Japanese officer identified himself as Commander Hayashi, Imperial Japanese Navy. After a short discussion, he asked if I was ready to sign papers. I told him I was prepared to surrender the post, and after further discussion, I wrote and signed a letter of surrender, (Enclosure 1). Shinahara informed me that I was to remain in Government House until further orders. I remained there with Commander Giles and Chief Yeoman Fariss [Fariss], until about 2030, without food. About 2030, Commander Giles and myself were ordered to leave immediately for the Naval Hospital, and were only permitted to take a few toilet articles. I found that the Guam officers were assembled there at the Suzana Hospital. Two days later, officers were removed and confined in the K.C.K. Catholic Church Building. I was permitted to remain at the hospital. The others in this hospital group were Captain Lineberry, Medical Corps, Medical Officer in Command Naval Hospital; Lieutenant Commanders H.J. Van Peenen, and T.I. Moe, Medical Corps; Commander D.T. Giles, and Pharmacist Daul.

16. A description of the period of confinement in Guam, as a prisoner of war, will be submitted in separate correspondence. The magazine at the Marine Barracks was destroyed; at the Pan Air Installation about 4,000 barrels of gasoline fell into the hands of the Japanese because the adjoining Standard Oil tank installation was on fire, and these Pan Air tanks could not be reached. The Quartermaster's Storehouse and contents were burned. Considerable damage to the storehouse and stores had been done at the Navy Yard., Piti. One of the Y.P. boats was destroyed by fire, and the other one practically so. The motive power of the small craft had been generally destroyed. The U.S.S. R.L. BARNES was damaged and leaking considerably, but had not sunk. The 5,000 barrel fuel oil tank which had been completed a short time before had been filled with fuel from various sources. No oil had been used from the tank because the piping had not been completed. This tank was set on fire and destroyed by H.H. Sachers, a civilian employee of the Public Works Department. A recommendation will be written under separate cover on Sacher's action in this case. The automotive transportation on the island fell in the hands of the Japanese practically intact. The large diesel trucks which were used by the contractors were destroyed.

17. The Insular Force Guard which had been organized beginning in April 1941, proved themselves to be a valuable asset, even though they were green troops. They stood their ground in their short action in the Plaza, until they were called back. I consider that these fine natives are entitled to recognition for the showing they made on this occasion. A list of all naval personnel serving in Guam on 8 December 1941, is attached hereto as Enclosure 3. A list of all casualties, dead, wounded, and missing, is attached as Enclosure 2.

18. It is estimated that the Japanese landing force consisted of a naval battalion (first wave) of about 600 men, followed by Army troops of the strength of a reinforced brigade (about 5,000 troops).

19. Officers and men assigned to the Stations on this occasion generally performed their duties in a satisfactory manner. Recommendations for special mention where such is considered warranted, will be made in separate correspondence.

G. J. McMILLIN, Captain
U. S. Navy
Encls: (HW)

1. Ltr. Of Surrender dtd. 12-10-41.
2. List of Deceased and Wounded.
3 Personnel on Guam on 12-8-41

Government House, Guam
10 December 1941
From: Governor of Guam

To: Senior Officer Present, Commanding Imperial Japanese Forces in Guam

Subject: Surrender.

1. I, Captain George J. McMillin, United States Navy, Governor of Guam and Commandant, United States Naval Station, Guam, by authority of my commission from the President of the United States, do, as a result of superior military forces landed in Guam this date, as an act of war, surrender this post to you as the representative of the Imperial Japanese Government.

2. The responsibility of the civil government of Guam becomes yours as of the time of signing this document.

3. I have been assured by you that the civil rights of the population of Guam will be respected and that the military forces surrendered to you will be accorded all the rights stipulated by International Law and the laws of humanity.

(S) G.J. McMillin(Summary of Enclosure 2, as amended by oral information from Captain G.J. McMillin.)

U.S. Casualties

Enclosure 2 indicated a total killed in the Jap invasion of Guam as follows: (1) 13 officers and men of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps; (2) 4 members of the Guam military; (3) 1 American and an estimated 40-50 civilians.

Enclosure 2 indicated a total wounded as follows: (1) 37 officers and men of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps; (2) 8 members of the Guam military; (3) an unknown number of Guam civilians.

C.L. DuVal.


American Military [2 Officers, 11 EM]
Bright, Lieutenant Graham P. (SC) USN
White, Ensign Robert Gabriel USNR
Smoot, Malvern Hill CMM 271-52-43
[RG 24 Box 3]
O'Neill, Frank James BM1c 328-23-72
[RG 24 Box 3]
Fraser, Rollin George BM1c 311-09-65
[RG 24 Box 3]
Pineault, Leo Joseph Cox 204-44-61
[RG 24 Box 3]
Ernst, Robert Walter SM3c 381-29-69
[RG 24 Box 3]
Hurd, Seba Guarland SM3c 337-14-86
[RG 24 Box 3]
Schweighhart, John GM1c 228-29-54
[RG 24 Box 3]
Bomar, William W. Jr PFC
Burt, William H. PFC
Anderson, Harry E. Corp
Kauffman, John M. Jr PFC
[Modified per Official Marine Roster created from enlistment records, USMC, Bureau of Personnel, 11 Mar 1942]

American Civilian [1]
Kluegel, John "Jack" [CPNAB, Public Works employee]
Guam Military [4]
Cruz, Jesus Cruz NS2c
Flores, Angel L.G. "
Chargualof, Vicente Cruz "
Sablan, V.S. "
Guam Civilians [3]
Camacho, Ramon
Mendiola, Ignacio
Untalan, Jose Castro

[39 Military (includes 5 Chammoro Guards) and 4 civilians - 43 total ]
Lieut. J.W. Haviland, 3rd 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Left forearm 6 weeks
Ensign E.A. Wood 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Back 3 weeks
Allen, D.A. GM3c 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Both legs, Rt.arm, Rt.shoulder 1 month
Hanzsek, J. MM1c 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Left wrist 2 days
Camillo, A.J. QM1c 12-9-41 Bomb fragment Left shoulder 1 day
McKenzie, L.W. F2c 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Back of head 3 weeks
Young, J.R. CRM 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Left side 1 day
Haskins, T.T. S2c 12-10-41 Bayonet Head (top) 1 day
Hale, E.E. EM2c 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Right upper chest none
Ballinger, R.W. PFC 12-10-41 Bayonet Back 10 days
Moore, H.C. SGT. 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Chest
Legato, A. CPL. 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Face and head
Rathbun, L.E. RM2c 12-10-41 Machine gun Left leg 2 days
Nixon, H. C. PFC 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Back 2 places 3 weeks
[see roster for notation]
Nichols, G.E. CPL 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Both lower legs 1 month
Spellman, E.J. PVT 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Right thigh 1 week
Whitaker, K.F. CWT 12-8-41 Machine gun Left lower leg 1 day
Ratzman, E.M. S1c 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Punc. Int.
Wilson, R.E. EM3c 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Punc. pubic region
Zimmer, R.W. F2c 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Leg
Gwinnup, R. H. EM1c 12-10-41 Machine gun Both legs
[feet] permanent damage to feet
Allain, J.A. MM1c 12-8-41 Machine gun Rt. leg
Tattrie, N.s. MM1c 12-8-41 Bomb fragment
Blaha, Joseph Henry CY 12-10-41 Rifle & bayonet Right leg & chest short right leg as a result
Cepeda, Francico Sablan NS2c
Sablan, Antonio Cruz NS2c 12-8-41 Lac. scalp
Meno, Jose NS2c 12-10-41 Bayonet Back
Sablan, Jose Santos NS2c 12-10-41 Bayonet & bullets
Limfiaco, Vincente Acfgelle
[Aflagui] NS2c 12-10-41 Bayonet & bullets Leg
Santos, Jose C. Civ. 12-9-41
Hughes, Wm. Rufus Civ. 12-10-41
Hughes, Jaquin Untalan
(wife of above Hughes) Civ. 12-10-41
San Nicolas, Magdalena Limtiaco Civ. 12-8-41
Magelssen, Walter S1c 12-8-41 Machine gun Leg
Chargualuf, R. OC1c 12-8-41 Bomb fragment Back
Perez, J.A. MM1c 12-8-41 " " Back
O'Brien, R. W. CBM 12-8-41 " " Left forearm
Lumpkins, Floyd F1c 12-8-41 " " Neck, jaw & hand
Babb, J.W. (*) Pfc 12-8-41 " " Leg amputated
* At Sumay Barracks
(Summary of Enclosure 3)

U. S. Forces and Civilians located on Guam at Outbreak of War

Enclosure 3 indicated that the following U.S. forces and U.S. civilians were on Guam as of 8 December 1941:

274 officers and men of the U.S. Navy under Captain George J. McMillin, USN, Governor of Guam: (2) 153 officers and men of the U.S. Marine Corps under Lieutenant Colonel William K McNulty, USMC; (3) 247 members of the Guam Insular Forces, of which about 100 comprised the Insular Force Guard; (4) 134 U.S. civilians.

The principal U.S. vessels at Guam were, the minesweeper PENGUIN, commanded by Lieutenant J.W. Haviland, III, USN; the ROBERT L. BARNES, an immobilized tanker, commanded by Lieutenant J. L. Nestor, USN; and two YPs (district patrol vessels).

The U. S. Naval Hospital at Guam was commanded by Captain W. T. Lineberry, MC, USN.

C. L. DuVal

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