Fukuoka 14-B "Nagasaki"
Camp was 1850 meters (1.15 miles) from ground zero and was completely destroyed by the A-bomb
Map Courtesy of US Merchant Marine
View (small memorial plaque on roadside)
Area Map - relation to other Fukuoka area POW camps
Aerial (Nov. 1947; courtesy of Japan Map Archives)
Employer of slave laborers:
MITSUBISHI JUKOGYO NAGASAKI ZOSEN-JO [Mitsubishi Foundry Co.]
22 Apr 1943: Established as Fukuoka 14B
Sept 1945: Rescue effected
Source: Henk Beekhuis
- Dutch POW
25 April 1943: Group arrived (about 300 Dutch)
15 May 1943: Group arrived (two Dutch nurses) ex Fukuoka
#2. Included the Dutch medics, Dr Huisman
and nurses Charles Alexander Denkelaar and Schenkhuizen.
28 August 1943: Group arrived (12 men coming from
4 Dec 1943: British known to have arrived ex Singapore
per Bryer affidavit - Hawaii Maru (Maru Shichi
(7) per Michno's book, "Death on the Hellships")
24 March 1944: Group arrived (2 Americans, Lowe and Van Allen, liberated at FUK-05)
from the Kenwa Maru
25 June 1944: Group arrived (about 200 survivors of the Tamahoko
Survivors of Tamahoko Maru, sunk 24 June 1944,
taken to this camp; not all survived. Tamahoko Maru
carried 772 POWs, 560 perished.
Report of British & Australian
survivors ref the sinking of the Tamahoko Maru
British POW Ronald Edwin Bryer: article #1,
Iron Foundry, Mitsubishi Steel Works
The POWs were used by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Company. 195
POWs (152 Dutch, 24 Australian and 19 British) were imprisoned
at the end of the war. 113 POWs died while imprisonment, 8 of
whom were killed by Atomic Bomb. For full PDF report in Japanese, see here under 長崎三菱造船分所.
to the POW Research Network of Japan)
Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works target report
(USSBS) - Note that the aerial photo shows the camp buildings but it
was unknown to our military at the time (see below for photo, camp site
circled in red). Note also this excerpt of the intel we had in late 1944 regarding POW camps in the Nagasaki area via interrogations of Japanese POWs.
Dutch arrived from Singapore on the Hawaii Maru, landing in Moji
FUK-14 Rosters 1946-02-16 - ORIGINALS
See also Henk Beekhuis' website (in Dutch) for info on #14 including rosters (Naamlijsten, per camp and alphabetical).
Witness Report: Javanese/Dutch POW excellent description
of atom blast and camp.
The Forgotten Highlander by Allistair Urquhart
A Doctor's Sword by Bob Jackson
Memorial monument to be unveiled in May 2021. See Foundation Monument Nagasaki for more information (site is in Dutch).
Air Raids and Atomic Bombing of Nagasaki
First A-bomb targets listed, July 24, 1945 - Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Kokura, Niigata
Colonel John Stone message to commanding General of Army Air Forces, Henry H. “Hap” Arnold.
Pres. Truman note about A-bomb use, Potsdam Conference, 1945-07-25
"This weapon is to be used
against Japan between now and August 10th. I have told the Sec. of War,
Mr. Stimson, to use it so that military objectives and soldiers and
sailors are the target and not women and children. Even if the Japs are
savages, ruthless, merciless and fanatic, we as the leader of the world
for the common welfare cannot drop this terrible bomb on the old
Capitol or the new.
He and I are in accord. The target will be a purely military one and we
will issue a warning statement asking the Japs to surrender and save
lives. I'm sure they will not do that, but we will have given them the
chance. It is certainly a good thing for the world that Hitler's crowd
or Stalin's did not discover this atomic bomb. It seems to be the most
terrible thing ever discovered, but it can be made the most useful."
A-bomb targets and authorization, July 25, 1945
"Letter received from General Thomas T. Handy to General Carl Spaatz
authorising the dropping of the first atomic bomb. Japan" - United States Strategic Bombing Survey (USSBS)
Air raids on Nagasaki before the Atomic Bomb raid
Records nearly 20 air raids (over 210 aircraft) by the 20th (B-29's), 7th, 5th Air Forces
and Navy planes, from August 1944 until Aug. 9, 1945. Included is a
list of some of the American B-29 airmen captured by the Japanese
on Aug. 20, 1944, on Iki Island in Nagasaki Pref. (see Japan POW Research Network PDF under "Seibu Kyushu District"; for full report, see MACR 42-24474). Air strikes continued on Japan even after the A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
Were the Japanese warned?
On Aug. 1, 1945, some 1 million leaflets were dropped on 30+ cities
(including Nagasaki) telling them to flee the cities before bombs
rained on them. By Aug. 9, The number of leaflets dropped over major
cities in Japan warning them about the A-bomb had reached some 5
million. - Williams Info War in Pacific
Nagasaki warned to evacuate (leaflet in Japanese with English translation, Aug. 6, 1945)
Ground zero BEFORE atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan
Ground zero AFTER atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan
"Ground zero is the spot directly below the explosion of the bomb." (USSBS)
Nagasaki Targets Reports, Oct. 26, 1945
Begins with list of targets on Kyushu island; assorted reports pre-
and post-attack, with many aerial images (contains duplicate reports)
Nagasaki Urban Industrial Area Damage Assessment, Sept. 4, 1945
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945)
- Report by The Manhattan Engineer District, includes damage, injury
and casualty data, selection of target, effects, eyewitness account by
Prof. Siemes (Hiroshima)
Miscellaneous Targets: Atomic Bombs, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Article 1, Medical Effects, Dec. 15, 1945
- Report by U.S. Naval Technical Mission to Japan; general aspects,
effects of radiation on humans, etc. (NOTE: Nuclear physics research in
Japan section is missing.)
Photographs of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945 (Manhattan Engineer District)
List of names and addresses of Japanese investigators of A-bombings (USSBS)
Effects of A-bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Captions and narration for a movie on the A-bombings; Nagasaki starts
on page 39. Note that the air raid alarm and alert warning continued
for several hours prior to the explosion at 11:02AM.
"A panoramic view around ground zero at Nagasaki, Japan. This picture
was taken from the platform of the Urakami Railroad Station. The
buildings on the right are the remains of the Nagasaki Medical College.
14 October 1945." (USSBS)
The Outline History of Nagasaki City
by Kiuchi and Sonoike, Imperial Univ. of Tokyo
"To present a general
topographical description of the City of Nagasaki which has become more
world famous since it was made the second target of the atomic bomb."
Of note: "...the descendants of the Uragami villagers... remained
faithful Christians, gave up 30,000 of their lives... for the atonement
of crimes by the Japanese militarists."
Nagasaki Trend of People's Morale
by Jukichi Okada, Mayor of Nagasaki City (English and Japanese) -
Changes in attitudes of the Japanese in their "fighting spirit" during
WWII. Of note: "...the workers [including students, women and girls]...
did not lose their fighting spirit to the very last, and stuck to their
posts." See also
Effects of the Atomic Bombs on Morale (USSBS, June 1947).
Nagasaki Special Interviews, Nov. to Dec. 1945
USSBS Morale Division
conducted interviews with the following: Jukichi Okada, Mayor of
Nagasaki; Eisuke Negishi, Nagasaki College of Industrial Management;
Kiyoshi Takese, Nagasaki Medical College; Nagasaki Pref.
police; Takejiro Nishioka, president of Nagasaki News; Sadao Urakami,
Nagasaki ration officer; Masayoshi Yokoyama, mayor of Tokitsu village;
Eiji Nozawa, principal of Tokitsu Youth School; Moto, principal of
Nagasaki Methodist Middle School for Girls; Nishioka bio
Foreign Population Statistics for Nagasaki Prefecture, Nov. 19, 1945
There were some who feared the 3rd city to be bombed would be Tokyo on Aug. 12th:
"On the afternoon of the 12th,
San Francisco broadcasted that the Japanese reply [re surrender] was
very late and intimated that as a result it might be necessary to bomb
Tokyo. (Meanwhile we had heard from a prisoner of war, a B-29 pilot,
that your government planned to use the atomic bomb on Tokyo on the
12th.)" - Hisatsune Sakomizu, Chief Secretary, Suzuki Cabinet
Indeed a third A-bomb was ready for use, with possible targets having already been listed earlier in April 1945. Perhaps the next target would have been Yokohama or Tokyo Bay. See this interesting phone conversation between War Dept. Gen. Hull and Goves associate Col. Seeman on Aug. 13, 1945, while waiting for Tokyo's reply:
Seeman: "There is one of them
that is ready to be shipped right now. The order was given Thursday and
it should be ready the 19th... the 19th it would be dropped... Then
there will be another one the first part of September... probably three
Hull: "...making a total possibility of seven. That is the information I want."
See this news article re Truman's warning to Japan (Aug. 10, 1945), and this one on page 2.
Note that both articles tell of Japan saying it has its own similar
A-bomb and will use it in kamikaze planes to decimate US invading
forces. To our intel experts, this was not something to be
laughed at, for Japan in fact was preparing a huge number of secret
weapons (see OUTLINE OF NAVAL ARMAMENT PREPARATIONS FOR WAR). More alarming, it was conducting research into its own A-bomb (see below for
more information on the Japanese quest for that super weapon).
The war started with Mitsuo Fuchida leading the attack on Pearl Harbor,
and it ended with the Nagasaki A-bomb. Here's what Fuchida had to say
to Enola Gay pilot Capt. Tibbets:
"You did the right thing. You
know the Japanese attitude at that time, how fanatic they were, they'd
die for the Emperor. Every man, woman, and child would have resisted
that invasion with sticks and stones if necessary. Can you imagine what
a slaughter it would be to invade Japan? It would have been terrible.
The Japanese people know more about it than the American public will
ever know." - This Token of Freedom by Helminiak
Pres. Truman's views on the use of the atomic bomb
A compilation of messages from Aug. 9, 1945, to Aug. 4, 1954, regarding justification for using the A-bombs against Japan.
"Nobody is more disturbed over
the use of Atomic bombs than I am but I was greatly disturbed over the
unwarranted attack by the Japanese on Pearl Harbor and their murder of
our prisoners of war."
For more insight into Japan's atomic research, read:
Dwight Rider on the reason why Japan surrendered: "The Japanese government was
definitely concerned about the growth of a communist movement inside
Japan at that time and the future of the Japanese Emperor system, and
that is why they surrendered. Again, it was because of the bomb, not
the Soviet invasion, and the potentially growing threat of communism
inside Japan in wake of a total collapse, that prompted them to do
that. Finally, in the Emperor's own statement, he credits the bomb as
being a terrible new weapon which could lead to the destruction of
humanity as his reason to surrender, not the USSR. The USSR was only
part of the deteriorating events that contributed."