Guam Timeline
1 Jan 1944 to end of war


Aerial of Orote-1999The following time line was developed by Roger Mansell using documents, affidavits from POWS, memoirs and books written by ex-POWS from Guam. Picture is Orote Peninsula 1999, US Navy Photo.

Please let us know of any errors.

Guam Time Line: 1941   1942     1943     1944     1945


14 Feb 1944: Umeda - SK3c R.M. Brown dies of pneumonia [Meyers Diary-US Govt says 14 April]
21 Feb 1944: Despatch No 7345- Second report on POW Camps arrive in Washington [RG 389 Box 2129]
13 Mar 1944: First air raid by carrier planes over Osaka [Kidd Interview]
10 Mar 1944: Hirohata- Pfc Robert B. Wood, USA, dies of starvation [Reed Memoir, Hale p 121]
13 Mar 1944: Zentsuji- Work ends on Osa Yama. Project discontinued. [Steiger diary]
13 Mar 1944: Umeda - Whitby, Turner and Muchie engage in brawl with 80 Japanese. Yanks victorious [Meyers Diary]
16 Mar 1944: Hirohata- Pfc. L.R. Bustamente, USMC, Sumay dies [Reed Memoir, Hale p 122]
23 Mar 1944: Hirohata- Word received that Supply Sgt. Jess W. Knighten, USMC, Sumay and Pfc Doyle B. Giles, USMC, Sumay died at Osaka in recent past. [Reed Memoir]
28 Apr 1944: Zentsuji- Red Cross representative visits camp. Pestalozzi
02 Apr 1944: Hirohata- Red Cross medicines arrive [Reed Memoir]
07 Apr 1944: Hirohata- Pvt Eugene C. Greenfield, USA, dies of beriberi. [Reed Memoir]
16 Apr 1944: Hirohata- Staff Sgt Iley Williams, USA dies of beriberi and pneumonia. Also notes passing "a few days earlier" of Pvt. James R. Renko, USA. [Reed Memoir]
19 Apr 1944: Hirohata- Pvt Walter W. Gould, USA dies of malaria, starvation, etc. [Reed Memoir]
28 Apr 1944: Zentsuji- Mr. Pestalozzi, Italian Rep for the Swiss Red Cross, visits camp.
28 Apr 1944: Hirohata- Simeroth (USA?) and two others leave for Osaka- see 3 Jun 1944 [Reed Memoir]
29 Apr 1944: Hirohata- Sgt Boyd S. Herring, USAAC, dies of beriberi, etc., 1018 hrs [Reed Memoir]
30 Apr 1944: Kobe International Hospital- Civilian Harold Wickman (CPNAB Guam) dies after gall bladder surgery. [Bacon diary]
05 May 1944: Hirohata- Pfc Everett W. Allred, USA, dies of beriberi, etc. [Reed Memoir]
xx May 1944: Umeda Bunsho- PhM3c Donald Andrew Benedict, USN dies (no specifics found yet) [Giles, p 190]
26 May 1944: Hirohata- personal packages arrive. [Reed Memoir]
28 May 1944: Hirohata- Japs issue new prisoner uniforms [Reed Memoir]
xx May-June 1944: Hirohata-Rumor that Italy surrendered, 135 Italian Seaman interned at original Hirohata Camp. [Reed p 123
02 Jun 1944: Hirohata- Murata again inspects camp [Reed Memoir]
03 Jun 1944: Hirohata- W.O. Bowman, R.L. Davis and W.T. Saunders (all USA) return from Osaka. Have mail bag of 600+ letters [Reed Memoir]
12 Jun 1944: Hirohata- 12 Italian Seamen arrive at Hirohata
16 Jun 1944: Hirohata- hear rumor southern Japan bombed; quells constant talk of POW exchange [Reed Memoir]
19 Jun 1944: Hirohata- another Guam man taken to Tokyo [Reed, p 123]
21 Jun 1944: Hirohata- New commandant for camp arrives, 2nd Lt Inaka, replaces 1st Lt Asakawa.
[Reed Memoir, Reed, p 123]
30 Jun 1944: Hirohata- receives a camp phonograph with French and German records. [Reed Memoir]
03 Jul 1944: Zentsiji- Col Unruh arrives 1600 hrs. [Steiger Diary- Ploke says 6 Jul]
11 Jul 1944: Hirohata- First time silk worms served as food [Reed Memoir]
18 Jul 1944: Hirohata- 12 Italian POWs brought into camp [Reed Memoir]
22 Jul 1944: Japanese Prime Minister and Minister of War, Hideki Tojo, resigns
30 Jul 1944: Hirohata- Capt Seid promotes Pfc Lee S. Garner, USA, to Staff Sgt [Reed Memoir]
xx Aug 1944:Three Australian officers arrive, all from the 2/20 Bn- transferred from Naoetsu [Wall, "Singapore & Beyond", pg 307]
01 Aug 1944: Umeda - general shakedown inspection [Meyers Diary]
03 Aug 1944: Zentsuji- Col Miller (Tanks) assumes command.
20 Aug 1944: Hirohata- Ichida, "The Bull" give water treatment to Potts, Melody and Sumrow. [Reed Memoir]
25 Aug 1944: Umeda - Meyers gives diary to Japanese interpreter, Mr. Htashi, for safekeeping [Meyers Diary]
30 Aug 1944: Zentsuji- 30 new officers arrive [Steiger Diary]
18 Oct 1944: Hirohata- Corp Fujita relieved by Gunso Kimura (sp?) [Reed Memoir]
xx Oct 1944: McMillin moved to Mudkin, China
06 Nov 1944: Zentsuji- Newton (Marine) discovered missing. Found that night hiding. Tried, convicted and sentenced to prison [Marks diary]
06 Nov 1944: Zentsuji- Six officers placed in brig-caught with bread crumbs in pocket (D'Arrezzio, John Ryan, Smith, Meis, Doc Curtis) and Powell (caught with hardtack) [Marks Diary]
11 Nov 1944: Zentsuji- Major Berton Arthur Barrett (Eng) dies 1930 hrs. Intestinal Disorder [Steiger & Burkhart Diaries]
18 Nov 1944:
Hirohata- 2 air raids and recon flights over Osaka, Kobe, Nagoya and Chisuoka, Japs in turmoil. [Reed]
18 Nov 1944: Hirohata- arrival of 496 RC Boxes; 100 Taken to nearby Dutch POWs. [Reed]
21 Nov 1944: Zentsuji- Flt Lt Donald H. Maulden, RAF, [Java] dies at 0400 hrs, starvation and pneumonia. [Menzies, Van Peenan, & Burkhart diaries] - Last officer to die in Zentsuji. One more Zentsuji officer dies at Rokuroshi, 04 Aug 1945. [Steiger indicates 21 Nov]
21 Nov 1944: 7 food parcels per man arrive, placed into storage- parial distribution [Wall, p 308]
23 Nov 1944: Hirohata- men issued winter coats [Reed Memoir]
26 Nov 1944: Hirohata- Red Cross box, one per man; some items held back by Capt Seid for future use. [Reed Memoir]
29 Nov 1944: Zentsuji- Sgt. William H. Sobey, USMC dies [Giles, p 197; Binns and Barnett confirm cause as meningitis]
01 Dec 1944: Zentsuji- 1st Lt Fred Garrett [leg had been amputated] and Capt George Manneschmidt arrive [Steiger Diary]
13 Dec 1944: Hirohata- Sgt Virgil Rist, 6851321, 59th CAC,USA dies at Kobe Hospital [Reed Memoir sates 12th in error]
24 Dec 1944: Hirohata- half RC box per man issued [Reed Memoir]


01 Jan 1945: Hirohata- Pfc Frank H. Martinsen, 59th CA dies of spinal meningitis [Reed Memoir, Hale p 129]
17 Jan 1945: Hirohata- Italians removed from camp, Murata and staff visit camp: singing and other forms of entertainment "prohibited until further notice"; mail call on 18th [Reed Memoir]
xx Jan 1945:
First Group of British officers moved out of camp [sent to Mitsushima POW Camp]
20 Jan 1945: Hirohata- First B-29 flies over camp, 0930 hr, estimated at 35,000 ft. [Reed Memoir]
31 Jan 1945: Hirohata- Staff Sgt William T. Biddison, 6660367, USAAC, (Milford TX) dies, heart failure [Reed Memoir, Hale p 129]
04 Feb 1945: Hirohata- Cpl Robert F. Chamberlain, USA, (Woodward OK) dies 1955 hrs , partial Red Cross boxes opened.[Reed Memoir, Hale p 129]
05 Feb 1945: Hirohata- Pvt Albert C. Kalen, USA, dies 0145 hrs, intestinal flu [Reed Memoir, Hale p 129]
16 Feb 1945: Lt. Glenn E. Cave, USAAC, operated on for appendicitis [Burkhart Diary]
17 Feb 1945: First carrier raids over Tokyo [S.E. Morison-Victory in the Pacific, Vol XIV, p 24]
13 Mar 1945: Osaka bombed
14 Mar 1945: Umeda evacuated to Tsuruga [Meyer memoir]
16 Mar 1945: Hirohata- received half Red Cross box per man [Reed Memoir]
13 Apr 1945: Zentsuji- Lineberry informed President Roosevelt has died. [Marks, Lineberry]
26 Apr 1945: Zentsuji- Large trenches dug in compound. Large enough for bodies of all prisoners. At least 2 trenches, approx 5 ft wide, 4 ft deep and 50 ft long. [Menzies note; Joe "Fingers" Brown, author interview.]
05 May 1945: Zentsuji- first B-29 spotted. [George Small diary, Center News, Center for Holocaust, UNV, Vol 6, No 1; Burkhardt Diary]
06 May 1945: Hirohata- Kathman states 134 men shipped out
20 May 1944: Rokuroshi- New camp established for officers to be sent from Zentsuji. 30 enlisted & civilian POWS arrive from the prison camps at Tsmori and Umeda in the Osaka district
28 May 1945: Hirohata- 134 men depart camp - sent to Tanuoka?
30 May 1945: Hirohata - 30 more men depart for Toyama
[Aldrich letter, 22 Feb 1994]
01 Jun 1945: Osaka HQ camp [Chikko] destroyed in B-29 raid; 458 planes, 604 men sent to mill at waterfront [Kidd interview, 20th AF History]
19 Jun 1945: Hirohata- 30 men transferred from Hirohata, unknown destination, 300 remained. [Ercanbrack] [Thompson Affidavit states 30 were sent to Nomatchi; Fusiki per Kathman]
13 Jun 1945: Zentsuji- English leave camp; Some sent to Fuk-09B-Miyata; Others go to Sen-07B-Hanuoka, a mining camp where there were 3 American officers and 500 American enlisted men. [Burkhardt Diary]
22 Jun 1945: Hirohata- 52 B-29s firebomb Himeji, nearest town to camp
23 Jun 1945: Zentsuji- 335 American Officers and enlisted men depart Zentsuji 13:45 hrs, via Okayama (2300 hrs, in air raid shelter overnight) to Fukiui late at night, travelling by a "wild streetcar at high speed". Arrive Fukui 1930; start walk at 2300 and arrive 0200 after 9 KM uphill walk to camp
[Marks, Giles, Morgan, Todd]
Special Note:
Remaining at Zentsuji were the enlisted men, non-USA officers and Civilians, e.g, Pearson (actual USNR), Herman P. Hevenor (Wake Island), Elmar Saar, and 2 American Warrant Officers [Marks, p 180]
24 June 1945: Rokuroshi- Officers etc arrive at 3:00 A.M., 335 men (4 later sent out and 2 tried to escape, caught and sent to Osaka - 339 at liberation) [Marks, Unruh affidavit]
24 Jun 1945: Rokuroshi- Sgt Boscarino (USMC) in charge of labor detail. [Steiger diary]
25 Jun 1945: Zentsuji- remaining Allied officers leave camp, Army Major and two Warrant Officers remain. Only 109 POWs remain at Zentsuji [Brown, p 124]
03 July 1945: Ray E. VanHorn, Corp., USMC dies [Killed, (Chikko-Osaka #1),Giles, p 198]
3-4 Jul 1945: Hirohata- city destroyed by B-29 raid. 116 B-29s. [Hale, p 133, 20th AF History]
3-4 Jul 1945: Zentsuji- Takamatsu bomber by 116 B-29s, 2 lost.
[20th AF History]
08 Jul 1945: Hirohata- estimated day of Himeji raid by B-29s
[Hale p 133]
13 July 1945: Tsuruga bombed, first camp destroyed, men moved to dock warehouse [Meyer memoir]
25 Jul 1945: Kawasaki POW Camp- Lt JG Frank J Carney [LINK for story of raid] and WO Bernard J.Snater plus Vern Small killed in B-29 raid. [per letter of nephew, 01 Oct 2001]
30 Jul 1945: Tsuruga attacked by 40 fighter planes. POWS moved to brick factory
04 Aug 1945: Rokuroshi- 2nd Lt. James Mallette, USA, dies [Marks diary, Burkhardt Diary]
05 Aug 1945: Rokuroshi- Second Lieutenants Samuel H. Dillard and Travis J. Smith transferred to Osaka HQ Camp for escape attempt. [Unruh deposition]
06 Aug 1945: HIROSHIMA - B-29, "Enola Gay", drops atom bomb, "Little Boy", at 0815 hours.
06 Aug 1945: Hirohata-men hear of new type bomb

08 Aug 1945: Tsuruga - one B-29, one bomb, destroys mill
09 Aug 1945: NAGASAKI - B-29 "Bock's Car' drops second atom bomb, "Fat Man", at 1106 hours
09 Aug 1945: Hirohata- Hale makes conclusion "bomb" was an Atom Bomb.
12 Aug 1945: Hirohata- PFC William Allen almost beaten to death [Reed Memoir]

15 Aug 1945: Japan Surrenders

17 Aug 1945: Rokuroshi- Informed work details not required. NOT informed war has ended. [Marks, Morgan]
18 Aug 1945: Rokuroshi- Guards disappear [Marks Memoir]
Aug 1945: Hirohata- 4 officers arrive (late August)- Dr. Rizzole, Lt Col Flineiau, 1st Lt Beyers & 1st Lt Woodside [letter from John Aldrich, 22 Feb 1994]
22 Aug 1945: Rokuroshi- 1600 hrs., informed war has ended, Japanese commander surrenders sword to Col. Unruh 15:30 hrs [Unruh, Marks]
22 Aug 1945: Hirohata- air raid sirens go off- false alarm [Big Bertha was nickname for sirens]
23 Aug 1945: Hirohata- Ercanbrack takes control of camp from Japanese, seizes all Japanese supplies.
[Hale, p 138]
24 Aug 1945: Rokuroshi- Col Unruh informs men was is over. [G. Small Diary]
25 Aug 1945: Hirohata- Status changed from POW to "Detainee"; first fighter planes circle camp- drop cigarettes [Reed Memoir]
25 Aug 1945: Occupation Troops arrive in Japan
26 Aug 1945: Hirohata- first POWs visit from other camps [Hale, p 140]
27 Aug 1945: Hirohata- "PW" painted on roof
28 Aug 1945: Hirohata- Numerous planes begin circling camp [Reed Memoir]
29 Aug 1945: Hirohata- Navy planes drop 7 cartons of cigarettes [Reed Memoir]
29 Aug 1945: Zentsuji -B-29s drop first load on Zensuji
29 Aug 1945: Rokuroshi- Lineberry, Unruh, Gus Johnson and Jack Ryder depart for Kyoto, 2300 hrs.
29 Aug 1945: Hirohata- 1330-1600 hrs, Col Murata and Red Cross officials tour camp. POWs refuse to clear yard. First refusal of Japanese orders
02 Sep 1945: Japanese sign surrender document aboard USS Missouri
02 Sep 1945: Zentsuji - Col Unruh (USA) and Capt. Lineberry (USN) and others return with truckload of food obtained from POWs at Tsurugu. American flag raised and camp renamed "Camp Malette".
02 Sep 1945: Hirohata- US and British flag raised over camp, 4:00 P.M. [Ercanbrack, Epperson, Hale, etc.]
02 Sep 1945: Five B-29's begin food drops at Rokuroshi [Unruh] Japanese sign surrender document [numerous mentions- Unruh affidavit states only four B-29's dropped food on the 2nd]
04 Sep 1945: Hirohata- Recovery team arrives
[Hale, p 147]
05 Sep 1945: Zentsuji- Star, Apra, Fisher, Morgan, Todd, Flournoy and Marks go to Ono via Matsumara. Meet up with Gordon, Ragusen, Whitman, Savage and Dalton. A Lt Ole Johnson visits camp. [Marks Memoir]
07 Sep 1945: Rokuroshi- [link to photos] Recovery teams arrive. Major Orr and Lt. Wilson return with extra food.[Marks, Unruh]
08 Sep 1945: Rokuroshi- POWs depart [Marks, Unruh]
09 Sep 1945: Hirohata- POWS depart [Hale, p 148]
10 Sep 1945: Zentsuji men's train arrive Yokohama [Marks Memoir]
25 Sep 1945: Marks arrives at Hamilton Field, north of San Francisco- home at last. [Marks Memoir]

Please let us know of any errors.