The following affidavits, testimonies and statements are in Word
document format, unless noted by HTML (webpage).
IMTFE = International Military Tribunal Far East (Tokyo War Crimes Trials)
Adams, Craddock C. (British)
Adams, William Lanton
Alberts, Joseph Edward
Anderson, Vetalis and Blueher, William
Andrews Jr., Thomas (HTML)
Armstrong, Wade (HTML)
Barham, George A.
Bennett, John B. (HTML)
Berg, Norman J.
Bracken, Maurice - page 2 only
Brunt, Loyal (Nichols Field murders)
Burton, John H.
Cook, Robert S.
Cunningham, William M.
Cutrer Jr., Hugh
Elvestad, Henry A.
Falk, George L.
Haws, Alfred A.
Henderson, Marion F.
Ingram, Joe G.
Kirk, Harold S.
Markowitz, Herbert (list of dead)
Abe, Tatsuo (IMTFE trial)
Hata, Asano, Kita, Nakamura (IMTFE trial)
Kawasaki, Iwao (IMTFE trial)
Mineno, Genji (IMTFE trial)
Nagakura, Seizo (IMTFE trial)
Rikitake, Yaichi (IMTFE trial)
Balfanz Jr., A. W. (Kokura Military
Berkeley, Allan (HTML) (DOCX)
Braye, William E.
Borrie, Thomas Clement (HTML)
Burns, William J.
Bush, Joseph J.
Cole, Walter Willis
Converse Jr., Arthur
Gale, Vivian George
Horton, E. F.
Williams, Richard Bland (HTML)
Yagi, Williams, Williamson, Valois, Upshaw (PDF, original)
Ikeda, Takano, Yagi (IMTFE trial)
Inoue (Inouye), Morio (Case Analysis - Charges - Sugamo Prison)
Saito, Sakaguchi, Inouye (IMTFE trial)
Inoue bio and interrogation (PDF, original)
Japanese Galley Sgt. (name unknown), 5‘ 8“ in height, 170 lbs. in weight, 30 years of age; he was now at the camp, wore no glasses, had a "bulldog" face and appeared as though he might be part white. He did not speak English and understood very little of it.
Sgt. Norman J. Berg, c/o James J. Berg, Prosser, Washington has the names of all the Japanese because he worked in their office. Sgt. James A. Fitzpatrick, 1809 North Main Street, Trent, Missouri, also worked in the office and I believe knows their names.
Japanese Major Rikitake was in charge of the camp at the time and he is now on trial for war crimes.
There were about seven or eight Japanese Privates also participating in the beatings that day but I cannot identify any of them by name or give a description of them.
The above facts constitute all of the details of the above incident as I can now recollect.
THOMAS JEFFERSON ANDREWS, JR., S/Sgt.
Subscribed and sworn to before me at this ____ day of April 1946, at Winslow, Arizona.
CERTIFICATESTATE OF ARIZONA
COUNTY OF NAVAJO
I, Seth F. Bohart, Special Agent, SIC, 9SC, certify that THOMAS JEFFERSON ANDREWS, JR., S/Sgt, personally appeared before me on this ____ day of 1946, at ____ and made the foregoing statement concerning war crimes.
Seth F. Bohart, Special Agent, SIC, 9SC
For the WAR CRIMES OFFICE
Judge Advocate General’s Department -- War Department
United States of America
* * * * * * * * * *
Q. State your name, rank, serial number and permanent home address.
A. My name is Wade H. Armstrong, Corporal, ASN 279915, and my permanent home address is 247 Pacific Avenue, San Antonio, Texas.
Q. State the place and date of your birth, the extent of your education, your civilian occupation and marital status.
A. I was born in San Antonio, Texas on 18 October 1921. I attended high school in San Antonio for three and one-half years and quit in January 1940 to enter the Service. I am single and have no civilian occupation.
Q. Have you recently been returned to the United States from overseas?
Q Were you a prisoner of war?
A. Yes, a prisoner of the Japanese.
Q. At what places were you held and state the approximate dates?
A. I was captured in Pekin, China on 8 December 1941 and sent to Woosung Prison Camp, Shanghai, remaining there from 1 February 1942 until 2 November 1942. I was then sent to Fukuoka Camp #3 at Yawata, Japan where I remained from 5 November 1842 until 4 September 1945, at which time I was liberated.
Q. Are you familiar with the circumstances surrounding the beating of Pvt. Woodall, Bill Cash and one unidentified civilian at Fukuoka Camp #3 at Yawata, Japan in November 1944?
A. Yes, I am.
Q. State what you know of your own knowledge concerning this incident.
A. In November 1944 Pvt. Woodall and two American civilians who were prisoners at Fukuoka Camp #3, Yawata, Japan, were severely beaten and burned with cigarettes while being questioned concerning the theft of some clothing. Woodall and the two civilians were called out of the barracks immediately after coming in from work on the day of the beating, and were taken to a Japanese officer to be questioned in regard to the theft of the clothing. [handwritten initials WHA] I was in the barracks with these men and saw them leave for the office. They were in the office for four or five hours, after which they were carried back to the barracks by other American prisoners of war. I was in my barracks and saw them when they were brought in. They were barely conscious and could not walk. The insides of their arms were burned badly. The burns looked to be of the type that would be caused by a cigarette burn. They were very badly bruised and cut about the head and back. These men were not hospitalized and received no medical treatment whatsoever for their wounds, and were forced to return to work the next day. The commander of this camp was a Japanese Major named Rikitake who was present during the beating of these men. Rikitake is fairly large for a Japanese, being about 5’ 6” tall, and fairly fat. He is 50 or 60 years old and has gray hair. At the time I knew him he wore a short moustache. He lived close to the camp. One of the Japanese who beat Woodall and the two civilians was a Japanese Sergeant Major named Kita. His is large for a Japanese, being about 5’ 9” tall, weighing approximately 150 pounds. He was very clean and his uniform was always neat. He was married and lived in Yawata.
Q. Do you know of any other pertinent details of this incident which you have not reported to me at this time?
Wade H. Armstrong, Cpl, USMC.
I, JOHN B. BENNETT, Lt. Colonel, Medical Corps, ASN 0229717, being first duly sworn upon my oath, depose and state that:
I was attached as a medical instructor with the 21st Philippine Army Division when I was captured by the Japanese on Bataan on 9 May 1942. From then until 1 March 1944 I was a prisoner of war at Camp No. 1, Cabanatuan. I was shipped by sea to Japan, arriving at Camp No. 3, Yawata, Fukuoka Area, Japan. I was confined at this latter camp from 22 March 1944 until 15 September 1945. I returned to the United States on 6 October 1945, and I am presently on terminal leave. My official home address is La Mesa, Texas, but I am presently residing at 8455 Truxton Avenue, Los Angeles 45, California.
From the time of my arrival on 22 March 1944 until sometime in July or August 1944, I was the Senior Officer at the prison Camp no. 3, Yawata, Fukuoka Area at which time I was succeeded by another United States Army officer. During the entire period from 22 March 1944 until 15 September 945 I was the Senior Medical Officer in the camp.
OFFICIAL JAPANESE POLICY ON DEATH RECORDS
I was the Senior American Medical Officer and it was my duty to sign the death certificates for any of the prisoners of war. Whenever a prisoner died a certificate was prepared in Japanese, and I signed the certificate without being able to read it, and it was never translated for me. I do not know of my own knowledge if any of the death certificates were falsified, however, I was told that the Japanese officials at the camp frequently covered up and changed the reason for the death of the prisoners. This was related to me by John Stanley Ship, Pharmacists Mate, United States Navy, whose home address is Hay Springs, Nebraska. According to him, on several occasions when a prisoner had died from starvation the reason that was given for the death was changed. Ship was one of the American prisoners who worked the Headquarters office of the camp, and it was within his scope of duties to see the official records. I should point out also that on a number of different occasions I signed duplicate death certificates, a fact which often made me wonder what had happened to the original. I was told by the interpreter that a mistake had been made, but suspicion naturally arose in my mind. I do not recall any occasion wherein the Japanese Commander, Rikitake, issued a statement relative to the officially recorded causes of death of any of the prisoners.
OFFICIAL JAPANESE POLICY TOWARD IMPROVEMENT IN CAMP CONDITIONS
Shortly after we arrived at Camp No. 3, Yawata, Fukuoka Area, Japan sometime in March or April 1944, an official three or four page statement was prepared by us prisoners and presented through channels to the Camp Commander, Rikitake. As I was Senior Medical officer, I requested eight American doctors and two American dentists under me to each make certain recommendations for improvement in this camp. These recommendations were then consolidated into one report by Captain Vetalis V. Anderson, whose home is in Del Norte, Colorado. I then signed the report and turned it over to the Japanese interpreter, Osano. I do not know for a fact whether this report was then turned in to Major Rikitake, although it is my firm belief that he was fully aware of it. It should be noted that prior to the preparation of this report I personally asked Major Rikitake if we could submit recommendations to him, and his reply was in the affirmative; consequently I am sure he received it. These recommendations suggested that more food be issued to the prisoners; that food be prepared in a better manner; that certain prisoners not be required to work; that beatings of prisoners for trivial offenses cease; and that additional medical supplies be given the prisoners. After submitting this report not one more word was heard from the Japanese officials concerning it, although on several different occasions we asked what happened to it, and they merely said it was being processed. In addition to the fact that we received no reply to this report, no action was taken on any of the recommendations.
In addition to this one written report there were constant and numerous verbal requests. I recall on particular incident in May or June 1944 when I personally talked to Major Rikitake, at which time I submitted three requests:
1. The prisoners should be given some recreation, and suggested that they be taken for a swim in a nearby bay on Sundays. The Major refused, giving as a reason that this was a military fortified area (in spite of the fact that under international agreement no prisoner of war camps are to be located in such an area).
2. At this particular time there were about twenty-five groups of American prisoners employed in a nearby steel mill. Approximately two of these groups were given extremely difficult work, one such duty being the making of bricks, on which job the mortality rate was exceedingly high. Another more difficult task assigned to a group was that of cutting the red hot steel plates. Because of the high mortality rate on these two tasks I asked Major Rikitake that the men in the groups be rotated throughout the camp. Rikitake replied no to this, stating that the men in these groups at that time were too experienced to be rotated for inexperienced men.
3. I requested more food for the prisoners, especially those working in the steel mill. Rikitake again refused, telling me that we prisoners were getting more food at this camp than was prescribed by the Japanese government for prisoners of war.
In addition to these requests to the Japanese Commanding Officer, I made almost daily requests to the Japanese Medical Officer, Lt. Hata, for additional medical supplies and equipment, none of which were ever honored.
BEATINGS OF AMERICAN PRISONERS
At the time Major Rikitake assumed command at Camp No. 3, Yawata, Fukuoka Area, Japan, he assured the prisoners that the beatings would cease. This never occurred, and beatings were numerous and constant during the period from March 1944 to September, 1945. Although I do not believe that Rikitake was of a criminal intent, he did not condemn the beatings by his subordinates, and on one occasion of which I am aware he personally administered a beating. Beatings were given in the camp for the infraction of the slightest rule, such as failing to put out a cigarette, failing to salute properly, failing to keep clean, etc.
I, myself, was severely beaten in December 1944 or January 1945. Shortly before this beating the Japanese Sergeant Major, Kita, came to me and since I was the Senior American Medical Officer asked me to give him Red Cross food parcels for a party which was to be given by the Japanese for one of their officers who was being transferred. Although I had no key to the storeroom, I refused him permission. At that time he became very angry, and shouted at me, but he did not strike me. Several days later I and several other prisoners were warming ourselves in the dispensary, in which was located the only stove in the camp. Kita walked into the room and we all arose and bowed to him. Without any explanation, he walked up to me and gave me a sharp slap on the forehead with his knuckles. He then sputtered a few words but I was unable to determine what he said. Immediately after this, I went to Major Rikitake’s office to ask why I was hit. Osano, the interpreter, was there and I explained my visit. As I was doing this, Kita came in and started shouting at me. I learned that the reason I had been beaten was for my failure as Senior Officer to call the group to attention when he entered the room. Kita became very angry when he learned I had come to Major’s office and started hitting me with his fists. Several of his blows skinned my cheek, and started my face bleeding. He then tripped me and I fell to the floor, whereupon he jumped on me with heavy boots and started kicking me. Finally he stopped and I left the office. Major Rikitake was not present during the entire time, and I never went back to tell him about this second beating. To the best of my knowledge, Kita was not reprimanded for this nor was any action taken against him. I suffered a slight hemorrhage in my ear and was unable to hear properly for the next week.
Lt. Hata was also responsible for many beatings, and I recall on incident in particular for which he was directly responsible. One of my medical corpsmen, Pvt. James Martin from Santa Monica, California, was in charge of the isolation ward in the hospital, and one of his duties was to make out a list of medical supplies for that day. On particular time, the date of which I cannot recall, Martin was writing a piece of paper, using a Japanese book which he picked up from a table as a support. Hata saw him do this and ordered one of his own Japanese corpsmen to beat Martin severely with his fists.
THE BEATING OF AMERICAN PRISIONERS BY MAJOR RIKITAKE
Sometime in the summer or fall of 1944, the exact date I cannot recall, the following incident happened:
At this particular time our rations were extremely short and it was not unusual for the prisoners to steal any food they could get their hands on. One of the prisoners, and American soldier, his name I do not know, had gotten into one of the air raid shelters and stolen a can of salmon. Rikitake learned of this, and that night when the boys returned from the steel mill he called the entire camp to attention in the street. A table had been placed in the middle of the street on which table Rikitake and the American solider in question were standing. Before the entire camp Rikitake then started beating the boy with his fists. The soldier was finally knocked off the table to the ground, whereupon Rikitake jumped on him stomping him with his heavy boots, and kicking him. I personally saw this incident.
MEDICAL TREATMENT AFFORDED PRISONERS
As Senior Medical Officer in Camp No. 3, Yawata, Fukuoka Area, Japan, I was fully aware of the deplorable medical treatment afforded the prisoners. The hospital which we used was a separate building constructed for that purpose, later another building was added which was also built for the same purpose. Our supplies were limited and on some occasions we received none. We were furnished no surgical equipment, and it was necessary for us to use what we had brought with us or make our own. All medicines were short, and it was often impossible to obtain Aspirin tablets. I particularly recall that sulfa drugs were limited and what we did receive were furnished through the Red Cross. On one occasion we had a number of pneumonia cases and it was necessary for us to use Sulfa Thiazol. Our supply ran out and we requested more, but Lt. Hata said there was none available. Finally after three patients had died of pneumonia, which probably would have been prevented if we had Sulfa Thiazol (it was issued us). I do not recall the names of these three patients, nor do I recall the dates of their death. Captain Vetalis V. Anderson, whom I have mentioned above, was in charge of pneumonia war and would have full details on this incident.
Another shortage was in oxygen which was to be used in the pneumonia ward. I knew from my own personal knowledge that oxygen was being used in the nearby steel plant for blowtorches. I requested of Lt. Hata that we be furnished some of this oxygen, but Lt. Hata refused, even though we offered to carry the cylinders ourselves.
The Japanese policy permitted us as Medical Officers to treat our own prisoners which meant that we would actually be administering the medicines, however, one of the chief complaints was in the fact that it was necessary for us doctors to ask the Japanese corpsmen, who were usually illiterate privates, before we could take any of our patients off their work details. On numerous occasions American prisoners were sent out to work for these corpsmen, when they were hardly able to walk home, and perform difficult tasks. As Medical Officer I asked that these prisoners not be sent to work. It was a common every-day occurrence for men to collapse when enroute to work, at work, and returning to camp.
Although our medical supply was short during the entire period, I learned upon our liberation that adequate medical supplies were available. In a tunnel on the edge of camp we found thirty-five boxes of Red Cross medical supplies, containing both medicine and equipment. On at least one occasion Red Cross food was found in Lt. Hata’s office when we ourselves had none available. It was also a common practice for the Japanese corpsmen to take some of our limited supply of bandages to use as a mask on their faces.
Although I requisitioned special foods for some of our patients none was ever received by us. As a matter of fact the diet of the patients was cut when they entered the hospital from the average of 2000 calories to 1200 to 1500 per day.
The food we received at Camp No. 3 was inadequate to supply a working man. We received a bowl of rice night and morning, and for six to eight months we were given two or three buns for our lunch. Occasionally we received an unpalatable fish, and for vegetables we received some greens in our soup. Occasionally we received an orange but this too was a rarity.
Sanitation at this camp was poor. Latrines were located at the end of each barracks, and they were emptied once a week into an open drain which ran through the camp. Flies were everywhere, and bedbugs, fleas and lice were a constant source of worry to us. Although we protested about this a number of times no action was taken except one or two applications of flea powder, but this did not kill the fleas. Provisions for bathing were adequate, and during the last four or five months we were able to bathe as frequently as we wished.
Major Rikitake would not permit me to assign a medical officer to inspect the preparation of the food. Occasionally, however, I went into the kitchen and saw that, with the exception of numerous flies, it was not in bad condition. One fault however, was in the distribution of the meals. Food was taken from the kitchen to the individual barracks where it was dished out into the individual bowls. This resulted in numerous handlings, and naturally was not sanitary. Amoebic dysentery was common because of the fact that the prisoners were not able to adequately cleanse their bowls. They were not given enough time to boil their bowls and as a consequence they washed them in cold water and let them dry.
Lt. Hata, the medical officer I have mentioned above, was primarily responsible for the poor medical care furnished the prisoners. Lt. Hata was a short, squatty heavy-set man, approximately 5 feet 4 inches tall, weighted 150 pounds. He wore glasses, and as I recall had no evident scars. Hata was married and had been assigned to Camp No. 3 since its beginning. He was transferred from another camp prior to the war. Sergeant Major Kita, whom I have mentioned above, was approximately thirty years of age, 5 feet 10 inches tall, weighted 150 pounds, slight build, no scars, close cropped hair, and no glasses. Kita had much authority in the camp and was one of the responsible individuals for much of the mistreatment.
Other qualified prisoners who can give detailed information are as follows:
Dr. Vetalis V. Anderson, Del Norte, Colorado, who was in charge of all the records for the pneumonia patients in the camp.
Dr. Herbert A. Markowitz, 3886 Bethany Road, Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Markowitz was a Lt., j.g. in the United States Navy, who had been in this camp prior to my arrival. He became my assistant and was in charge of all the records for the Marine and Navy personnel.
John Stanley Ship, Hay Springs, Nebraska, who was a Pharmacists Mate, United States Navy, worked in the Japanese Headquarters office at the camp and he know much about their records.
C.T. Hyde, Whittier, North Carolina, who was a Pharmacists Mate, United States Navy, was also familiar with the Japanese records.
The above facts constitute all of the details of the above incident so far as I can now recollect.
JOHN B. BENNETT, Lt. Col. MC
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 3rd day of May 1946, at Los Angeles, California.
Philippe de C. Garnier
|Scan courtesy of Scott Proudfit: "Found this in my Uncle Bill’s (Emerick) scrapbook, from the Americans in Shanghai and sent to the POW’s at Woosung Prisoner of War Camp. My uncle carried this with him all those years from Shanghai."|